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Essay’s requirements :
• 4-5 pages in APA format.
• Please please avoid the plagiarism.
• Use simple words as much as you can.
• My first essay is down that has the topic about the global issue and some links with this
• This essay will have the same topic as the first one and this essay will be part two of
the first essay.
There are more information about the essay:
Position writing presents an arguable opinion about an issue. The goal of a position paper is to
convince the audience that a opinion is valid. Ideas need to be carefully examined in choosing a
topic, developing the argument, and organizing the paper. It is very important to address all sides
of the issue and present it in a manner that is easy for the audience to understand. Take one side
of the argument. It is important to support the argument with evidence to ensure the validity of
the claims, as well as to address the counterclaims.
Questions for Consideration and Topic Exploration: Identify a key global challenge (linked to
our course themes), given our continued reading and discussion, that you would like to explore
and lead you toward your final research paper. After providing information on the challenge, you
will then provide your stance on the issue and advocate for a means to overcome the global
challenge. Please utilize the following theory, symbolic interactionism, to ground your paper
(you may also incorporate critical or conflict theory, if applicable). As well, utilize a variety of
sources beyond our course texts to help solidify your position on the global challenge. These
should include scholarly journals (at least one), newspaper articles, international organizations
websites (UN, OECD, World Bank, Grameen Bank, etc) as well as other materials related to the
global challenge you have identified.
The issue of food crisis affects individuals across the globe. Different factors have
caused the low production of food. One of the main factors is the change in the climatic
conditions being experienced by different nations across the globe. Climate affects food supply
as people cannot take part in agriculture without favorable climatic conditions. Other factors
include the lack of the technology required to farm and to increase the produce harvested within
a given season. Other causes of low food production include inflation which results in
unaffordable food prices.
The main food crisis facing the global world is starvation in that different countries
have been unable to produce sufficient food to feed their citizens. South Sudan, a country located
in Africa has been faced with harsh climatic conditions. This means that the country, although
with a rising agricultural economy, has been unable to produce sufficient food to meet such
demands. It has been estimated that close to five million individuals in the country lack food and
the number will not deteriorate anytime soon. Other factors that have affected food production in
the country include inflation and violence which was quite dominant during the secession of
Sudan into North and South Sudan (www.unicefusa.org).
The second case is in Nigeria. Nigeria like South Sudan is also located in Africa. The
Boko Haram which is a terrorist group recently attacked a part of Nigeria especially the area
around Lake Chad. The aftermath of the attack is the decrease in food production. This is
because individuals are still trying to deal with the terrorist attack which destroyed property and
killed a number of individuals. As a result, farming becomes impossible. The children in most of
the campsites suffer from malnutrition because of lack of a balanced diet.
Malnutrition can either be caused by insufficient nutrient or an excess of nutrients.
Most of the countries that indicate a high level of malnutrition are located in the Middle East and
Africa. The causes of malnutrition include undernourishment which results from unaffordable
food prices as a result of inflation and poverty. By 2015, UNICEF claimed that more than seven
hundred million individuals around the world were malnourished. The World Health
Organization (WHO) when addressing the issue of child mortality claimed that 59% of child
deaths are caused by malnutrition.
Karl Marx argues that ” Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great
hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other — Bourgeoisie and
Proletariat”(Marx,1908). The Marxist theory relates social classes to the economy including the
main players in the economy who control different instruments. Karl Marx tried to give a
perspective on how society operates. He argued that society is divided into two classes: the rich
and the working class (Lichteim, 2016). The working class is often the employees of the rich
who not only control but they also own the factories in which the working class work in order to
be able to sustain their daily needs. Marx argues that the rich control the means of production
while the working class asserted labor in effecting the means of production.
Regardless of the labor used and the time spent in production, the working class was
still underpaid and they could not afford to sustain their livelihood. The working class, in this
case, becomes the workers while the rich become the owners who force the workers to become
laborers in order to earn a salary which sustains their livelihood. Marx argued that the workers
spend a lot of time laboring while the owners might opt to never show up and yet the owners get
to get the greater portion of the profit that is made by their laborers.
Marx also developed a theory that tried to connect the forces of production with the
relations of production. He argued that interaction between the aforementioned determined the
type of society that human beings subscribed to. The forces of production relate to the
technology or rather the means used when producing commodities and might include machine
technology and labor technology among others. The relations of production denote the owners of
the forces of production; the machine technology being used is owned by a certain individual.
The individual represents the relations of production (Lichteim, 2016).
In the beginning, both factors interact with each other to benefit the community at
large. However, with time a conflict arises between the two factors of production. The owners
are reluctant to give away their forces of production in order to benefit the society at large. Being
rational beings, we are entitled to consider our self-interest before considering the interest of
other individuals (In Bounds & In Berry, 2016). This means that in order for the relations of
production to allow the use of the forces of production, they will want to gain interest regardless
of whether or not the society will benefit from the use of the forces.
The production of food is dependent on different forces of power including
technological equipment among others. The relations of power who control the forces are often
reluctant to give away their forces of production without receiving payment. Most people,
especially individuals in Africa and the Middle East, are poor. This means that they are unable to
pay for the forces of production and thus the owners of the forces are reluctant to give them the
technology required to produce food which results in a decrease in the food production and later
on starvation and malnutrition.
When organizations like UNICEF and WHO give data regarding the individuals who
are being affected by low food production and those suffering from malnutrition, they focus on a
specific class of individuals. The rich have enough food. This is because they enjoy the profit
that accrues to their business as a result of the labor exercised by the workers. The workers often
live in poor living conditions and they also receive a low wage. This means that they are unable
to afford the basic necessities in life including food and shelter and thus they are the victims of
the food crisis. Most governments are responsible for ensuring adequate food supply to the
people they rule.
The people in power get access to the technology required to produce food. After the
production, they store the food produced until the country faces a low food supply. When this
happens, they tend to release the food produce and sell it at unaffordable prices. A large number
of individuals are unable to afford the food produced due to lack of adequate funds. In short, the
owners still determine the means of production and forces of production and relations of
production have not been synchronized over the years and thus the emergence of a conflict
between the two which affects food production.
In conclusion, the Marxist theory talks of two different classes existing in the
economic arena. While one class owns and controls the means of production, the other class is
responsible for giving labor which will promote food production. The food crisis can be
explained through the Marxist theory through arguing that the owners of the forces of production
are reluctant to give out these forces. Technology is crucial in food production as it increases the
produce as well as increasing the quality of the food produced within a given period of time
which is crucial in sustaining the needs of the human race.
Famine and Food Crises. (2017). Retrieved from
In Bounds, P., & In Berry, D. (2016). British Marxism and cultural studies: Essays on a
LICHTHEIM, G. E. O. R. G. E. (2016). MARXISM: A historical and critical study.
Place of publication not identified: ROUTLEDGE.
Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1908) The Communist Manifesto. iBooks. Retrieved from
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