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1 PARAGRAPH PER QUESTION 6 Questions 1 Paragraph Each no reference or formatting these question answers are entered into an ebook so plagiarism doesn’t even matter doesn’t have to be original nor waste your time on apa format or references neither dont need them During the
post-World War II period, as pharmaceutical companies began to provide
medications to control or even cure previously untreatable disorders,
psychiatry was left behind. It had few proven treatments and was viewed by many
as an unwanted stepchild of medicine. In response to this crisis, psychiatry
had to re-invent itself to appear as much of a science as the other specialties
in medicine. Panels of experts spoke at length about the glories of the medical
model of psychiatry and were touted as experts in their field when the media
requested interviews (Whitaker, 2010). The American Psychiatric Association
provided workshops for psychiatrists on how to conduct themselves in television
interviews, and sought out positive media coverage (Whitaker, 2010). Physicians
who did not fully endorse the “party line” were shunted aside, and the media
were not referred to them for interviews (Whitaker, 201Basking in the reflected glory of
the growing list of psycho-pharmaceuticals, psychiatrists were rarely asked why
— if there were many effective treatments for mental illness — there were so
many more people who were mentally ill than in earlier times and why their
prognosis was so much worse than the prognoses for persons with the same
disorders at the turn of the 20th century. In the early days of psychiatry,
depression or schizophrenia did not have the same lifelong disabling prognosis
that it does in the era of modern pharmacotherapy (Whitaker, 2010). The
pharmaceutical revolution did not cause the state hospitals and asylums to open
their doors and discharge thousands of patients back into the community;
rather, it was the introduction of Medicaid and Medicare programs in 1965 that
did so. These programs provided for the reimbursement for care of the
chronically mentally ill in community nursing homes but not in state hospitals
or asylums. Thus, the patients were discharged to community nursing homes,
where their care was paid for though Medicare and Medicaid (Whitaker, 2010).The purpose of any professional
medical organization, Whitaker (2010) noted, is to increase the profits of
practitioners in that organization. This creates a situation in which: (A)
pharmaceutical companies produce a wide range of compounds that affect the
function of the brain; (B) the public (and to a large degree the medical
community) has been educated to believe that these psycho-pharmaceuticals are
effective; (C) the pharmaceutical industry claims that these medications are
safe because they have conducted carefully choreographed research to prove
this; (D) the Food and Drug Administration has adopted a stance in which it
works more closely with pharmaceutical companies to promote their products than
as a watchdog agency working to insure the public’s health; and, (E) these
medications can be prescribed only by licensed health care professionals
(usually physicians) who have been taught that this is the only way to treat
mental illness and are instructed on the proper use of these medications by
pharmaceutical-company-trained salespersons. It might be argued that the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders helped to define the
various forms of mental illness, helping to legitimize psychiatry.References
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders (4th edition). Washington, D.C.: Author.

1. Is there a conflict of interest
in this process? Why or why not?
ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPh)

2. Do you agree with the author’s perspective? What
experience or evidence do you have to support your argument?
ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPH)
The
article states “most people with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders
suffer from co-occurring disorders (CODs), including mental health and medical
problems, which complicate treatment and may contribute to poorer outcomes”.
3. How are outpatient programs, clinicians, and residential settings equipped
to handle this need and clinical area of concern? ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPH)
4. As a clinician, where does your
responsibility lie in being aware of the non-mental health needs and how they
can impact, interrupt, or sabotage treatment?
ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)

Dual diagnosis clients often
demonstrate different forms of denial depending on the skills and training of
the professional interviewing them. Contrast the following two hypothetical
interviews. The client is a man who is assumed to be 25 years old and is
recovering from the aftereffects of a closed head injury he suffered while
intoxicated.
Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use to try and
determine whether you have a substance abuse problem.
Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing
problem.
Counselor (speaking more loudly): In the year before your accident, how
often would you say you would drink alcohol in the typical week?
Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was
told by the doctors that I probably won’t be able to regain any of those
memories back.
Counselor: All right, how far back does your memory allow you to recall
things clearly?
Client: Two or three years back.
Counselor: Then describe what your alcohol use pattern was like 2-3
years ago.
Client: Oh, it was not a problem back then. I hardly ever used alcohol.
But I can’t remember clearly, because of my head injury. Sorry.
Now contrast this with the following
hypothetical interview between a physician and the same client the next day.
Physician: Well, you seem to be recovering quite well. But your alcohol
and drug abuse bothers me.
Client: Oh. The counselor told me that I don’t have a problem. We
discussed this yesterday and he said that I did not even seem to abuse alcohol.
I never use drugs, so that is not a problem. But my shoulder still hurts me a
lot.
Physician: Does it hurt when you move your shoulder in a specific way,
or does it hurt all the time?
Client: All the time. Can you give me something for the pain?
In this hypothetical set of
conversations you can see how the client shifted the focus away from his
substance use to his medical condition when meeting with the rehabilitation
counselor, and then away from his substance use to a physical problem when meeting
with the physician (with a ploy to obtain painkillers tossed in for good
measure). Thus, clear and continuous communications between the professionals
who are involved in the patient’s treatment is always necessary. For example:
Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use, to try
and determine whether you have a substance abuse problem.
Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing
problem.
Counselor (speaking more loudly): Really? Dr. Smith did not mention that
in his notes. I will have to mention it to Dr. Smith when we meet later this
afternoon and Dr. Smith will want to discuss that problem with you. But let us
move on. In the year before your accident, in a typical week how often would
you consume alcohol?
Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was
told by the doctors that I probably won’t be able to regain any of those
memories back.
Counselor: Hmmm. The neuropsychological test results did not suggest
either short term or long term memory problems. It is strange you cannot
remember that information now.
Client: Can I see the report?
Counselor: You can discuss the report and the conclusions with the
neuropsychologist after we are finished. Right now we are discussing your
alcohol use in the year prior to your accident…
5. What
changes do you notice between the third dialogue and the first pair of
dialogues?
ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)
6. What
practices caused those changes?
ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)
paragraph_per_question.docx

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1 PARAGRAPH PER QUESTION
1. Does Psychopathology Even Exist?
During the post-World War II period, as pharmaceutical companies began to provide
medications to control or even cure previously untreatable disorders, psychiatry was left behind.
It had few proven treatments and was viewed by many as an unwanted stepchild of medicine. In
response to this crisis, psychiatry had to re-invent itself to appear as much of a science as the
other specialties in medicine. Panels of experts spoke at length about the glories of the medical
model of psychiatry and were touted as experts in their field when the media requested
interviews (Whitaker, 2010). The American Psychiatric Association provided workshops for
psychiatrists on how to conduct themselves in television interviews, and sought out positive
media coverage (Whitaker, 2010). Physicians who did not fully endorse the “party line” were
shunted aside, and the media were not referred to them for interviews (Whitaker, 2010).
Basking in the reflected glory of the growing list of psychopharmaceuticals, psychiatrists were
rarely asked why — if there were many effective treatments for mental illness — there were so
many more people who were mentally ill than in earlier times and why their prognosis was so
much worse than the prognoses for persons with the same disorders at the turn of the 20th
century. In the early days of psychiatry, depression or schizophrenia did not have the same
lifelong disabling prognosis that it does in the era of modern pharmacotherapy (Whitaker, 2010).
The pharmaceutical revolution did not cause the state hospitals and asylums to open their doors
and discharge thousands of patients back into the community; rather, it was the introduction of
Medicaid and Medicare programs in 1965 that did so. These programs provided for the
reimbursement for care of the chronically mentally ill in community nursing homes but not in
state hospitals or asylums. Thus, the patients were discharged to community nursing homes,
where their care was paid for though Medicare and Medicaid (Whitaker, 2010).
The purpose of any professional medical organization, Whitaker (2010) noted, is to increase the
profits of practitioners in that organization. This creates a situation in which: (A) pharmaceutical
companies produce a wide range of compounds that affect the function of the brain; (B) the
public (and to a large degree the medical community) has been educated to believe that these
psychopharmaceuticals are effective; (C) the pharmaceutical industry claims that these
medications are safe because they have conducted carefully choreographed research to prove
this; (D) the Food and Drug Administration has adopted a stance in which it works more closely
with pharmaceutical companies to promote their products than as a watchdog agency working to
insure the public’s health; and, (E) these medications can be prescribed only by licensed health
care professionals (usually physicians) who have been taught that this is the only way to treat
mental illness and are instructed on the proper use of these medications by pharmaceuticalcompany-trained salespersons.
It might be argued that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders helped to
define the various forms of mental illness, helping to legitimize psychiatry.
References
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (4th edition). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Is there a conflict of interest in this process? Why or why not?
ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAP)
2. Do you agree with the author’s perspective? What experience or evidence do you have
to support your argument?
ANSWER: (1 PARAGRAPH)
3. The article states “most people with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders suffer
from co-occurring disorders (CODs), including mental health and medical problems,
which complicate treatment and may contribute to poorer outcomes”.
How are outpatient programs, clinicians, and residential settings equipped to handle this need
and clinical area of concern?
As a clinician, where does your responsibility lie in being aware of the non-mental health
needs and how they can impact, interrupt, or sabotage treatment?
ANWER (1 PARAGRAPH)
4. Free-Floating Denial
Dual diagnosis clients often demonstrate different forms of denial depending on the skills and
training of the professional interviewing them. Contrast the following two hypothetical
interviews. The client is a man who is assumed to be 25 years old and is recovering from the
aftereffects of a closed head injury he suffered while intoxicated.
Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use to try and determine
whether you have a substance abuse problem.
Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing problem.
Counselor (speaking more loudly): In the year before your accident, how often would you say
you would drink alcohol in the typical week?
Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was told by the doctors that I
probably won’t be able to regain any of those memories back.
Counselor: All right, how far back does your memory allow you to recall things clearly?
Client: Two or three years back.
Counselor: Then describe what your alcohol use pattern was like 2-3 years ago.
Client: Oh, it was not a problem back then. I hardly ever used alcohol. But I can’t remember
clearly, because of my head injury. Sorry.
Now contrast this with the following hypothetical interview between a physician and the same
client the next day.
Physician: Well, you seem to be recovering quite well. But your alcohol and drug abuse
bothers me.
Client: Oh. The counselor told me that I don’t have a problem. We discussed this yesterday
and he said that I did not even seem to abuse alcohol. I never use drugs, so that is not a problem.
But my shoulder still hurts me a lot.
Physician: Does it hurt when you move your shoulder in a specific way, or does it hurt all the
time?
Client: All the time. Can you give me something for the pain?
In this hypothetical set of conversations you can see how the client shifted the focus away from
his substance use to his medical condition when meeting with the rehabilitation counselor, and
then away from his substance use to a physical problem when meeting with the physician (with a
ploy to obtain painkillers tossed in for good measure). Thus, clear and continuous
communications between the professionals who are involved in the patient’s treatment is always
necessary. For example:
Counselor: So, we are meeting here to discuss your substance use, to try and determine
whether you have a substance abuse problem.
Client: Can you speak up a bit? The accident left me with a hearing problem.
Counselor (speaking more loudly): Really? Dr. Smith did not mention that in his notes. I will
have to mention it to Dr. Smith when we meet later this afternoon and Dr. Smith will want to
discuss that problem with you. But let us move on. In the year before your accident, in a typical
week how often would you consume alcohol?
Client: I can’t remember much of the year before the accident. I was told by the doctors that I
probably won’t be able to regain any of those memories back.
Counselor: Hmmm. The neuropsychological test results did not suggest either short term or
long term memory problems. It is strange you cannot remember that information now.
Client: Can I see the report?
Counselor: You can discuss the report and the conclusions with the neuropsychologist after we
are finished. Right now we are discussing your alcohol use in the year prior to your accident…
What changes do you notice between the third dialogue and the first pair of dialogues?
ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)
What practices caused those changes?
ANSWER (1 PARAGRAPH)

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