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**Please use attached country study for reference / Use South Korea as the selected country for annotated timeline**Project 2: Annotated Timeline Choose one state from your country study project and create an annotated timeline based on one of the issues included in the country study. The timeline should be no more than three pages (single spaced, 12-point font, with two spaces between each entry), presented as a Word document.Include the following components in the timeline: The timeline should include a list of dates, along with a sentence or two that describes the importance of each date. The timeline is meant to show how the issue evolved and the significant junctures in its history.The list of dates should have at least 10 separate annotated entries. Do not use more than 15 entries. Try to group smaller events into larger categories if there are many events to consider.Give the timeline an appropriate title, such as “Women’s Political Activism in Chile, 1973–2010.” Make sure that it is evident which state you are using for the timeline.Design a format for the timeline, and be consistent in its use. For example, most timelines place the date at the left margin with the annotation directly next to it, separated by a colon or a dash.For each annotation, include information about the key actors or the key actions, and the significance of each. A single sentence should be sufficient for the annotation, as it is meant to be brief. Write in proper sentences. Do not abbreviate words, and use complete sentence structures.Once you have completed the dates and the annotations, take a look at the overall presentation of the timeline.Is your name on the timeline at the top left-hand corner?Have you given the timeline a title (see Item 3 above)?Are there page numbers at the bottom of each page?Should the dates be bolded in order to stand out?Have you included a “Sources” page in APA format? (This page will not count toward the three-page limit.)No cover page is necessary, but make sure that your name is on the top of the paper.The annotated timeline will be graded using the following rubric:Overall presentation: 20 percentSelection and substance of issue: 20 percentContent of annotations: 20 percentSignificance of dates and events: 20 percentConsistency and organization in date presentation: 20 percent
gvpt_280___chris_reagan_comparative_study.docx

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Comparative Country Study
Chris Reagan
GVPT 280
10/8/17
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A comparative study of South Korea and India
South Korea
South Korea, which is officially referred to as the Republic of Korea, is a sovereign
country located on the Asian continent, specifically in the Eastern part of the continent. The
country is located on the Korean Peninsula and occupies the southern part of the peninsula and
the adjoining mountains. The country holds a vast geographical area of 8,691 square miles and
is inhabited by around 51.48 people. This population vis a vis the country size translates to a
population density of 507 people for every square kilometer. The country is small as compared to
the United States of America and can be a fraction of the states. For instance, the size
enumerated above makes up only 20% of California State.
The country borders North Korea, making the latter its only neighbor with regards to the
land borders. The rest of the country borders the sea. The nation majorly experiences the humid
subtropical climate, with some areas enjoying the humid continental climate. It further boasts of
an array of natural resources with the most prevalent being coal, lead, tungsten, molybdenum,
and graphite (Kwon & Kim, 2014). The country also has a high potential for hydropower,
thought the same had not been exploited actively.
The people of South Korea are of Korean ethnicity, accounting for up to 96% of the total
population. However, due to the influx of technology and economy, the country has become a
lucrative destination for immigrants, attracting Chinese and American nationals in high numbers.
The population, however, seems to be on the decline, considering the previous influxes that
rendered the country one of the most densely populated states in the world. This trend has shown
worrying signs, because the aging population is bigger than the growing population. Further, the
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country has registered some of the highest life expectancy figures in the world. The overall life
expectancy for the general population stands at 81.7 years, with men clocking 76.1 years
compared to women’s 82.7. Finally, the country portrays very high literacy standards, with
97.9% of the population being literate.
South Korea has a democratic government in place with its seat at the country’s capital in
Seoul. The country is led by a president and an entirely independent and executive prime
minister. The structures of government are informed by the dictates of the country’s constitution,
which doubles up as the sovereign law of the land. The nation elects its leaders based on the
principles of universal suffrage, which entails secret ballot. The president serves as the head of
state while the prime minister heads the government. The country’s structures also appreciate the
notion of separation of powers, since the leadership is split into the three basic arms of
government; the legislature, judiciary, and executive.
South Korea is ranked among the developed countries in the world, forming part of the
G-20 summit members. Its economy is ranked 13th in the world, though the same is subject to
review since the country is also amongst those developed developing countries. Its economy is
boosted by the fact that it has a literate population, forming a considerable skilled labor force. It
boasts a GDP of 1.14 trillion US dollars, which explains its high rankings in the overall world
economy (Manyin, 2014). The country has a meager unemployment rate, standing at 3.8% of the
population. The poverty rates are also very low citing 15% of the population as living under the
poverty line. However, their poverty is relative as they apply the median line as a threshold for
poverty. Their median family income in Korea rests at around 19,000 US dollars per year.
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South Korea also has an elaborate transport system, which encompasses all the modes of
transport. Their air transport infrastructure is highly operational, with numerous air routes within
the country. Further, they have a superior rail transport system that crisscrosses their terrain,
applying electric trains for long distances with metro trains plying the shorter routes. Road
transport is also buttressed with a top of the chain road network connecting the various
destinations within the country. Finally, they have an established water transport system,
connecting them to their international destinations as well as up to date ferry services that
connect the internal water transport network.
Finally, the country has invested heavily in its military operations. It has the sixth most
massive army in the world, based on active members of the defense forces. Further, it has a large
reserve military force that is on standby. The country allocates up to 2.6% of its GDP on military
activities and spends up to 15% of its budget on the same (Stubbs, 2017). This state of affairs is
aggravated by the unresolved issues with the neighboring North Korea, which is also very keen
of revamping its military. However, apart from its sour relationship with North Korea, the
country enjoys immense goodwill from the international community. It does not face issues of
immigration and human trafficking, partly because of its geographical location and partly due to
its foreign policy.
Political problem; dual transition
Statement of the problem
The Korean system of government envisions both an executive president and an
executive prime minister. The system was projected to be useful but has failed due to the
disharmony in the mandates of the respective offices and the inherited baggage brought down
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from previous administrations. However, blame is apportioned to prevailing regimes such that
the problem is viewed as a current situation, with the solutions suggested looking into the short
term. However, the issues should be looked at in the context of historical injustices, with the
reprieves adopted considering the same.
Background and factors
The cold war saw the establishment of social, economic and political structures within the
country that leaned towards liberal democracy. However, subsequent governments have worked
towards dismantling the said structures with the view of creating a more diplomatically
independent and democratic society. This move has created a lot of generational quagmires
because the problems inherited from the previous regimes are not entirely solved before
endeavors to create an entirely different political system are undertaken (Khil, 2015). The same
creates a transitional dilemma and contributes to the country’s biggest political nightmare.
As a consequence of the phenomenon mentioned above, the country has been in a
constant state of transition, which state creates platforms for a lot of vices to thrive. For instance,
the country experiences a great deal of civic mistrust, political and social conflict, policy
misalignment and a lingering sense of leadership crisis. Further, a lack of consensus in a majority
of issues creates a divide in the political landscape. The same breeds corruption, poor
governance, and general politically instigated instability.
Recommendations
The approaches adopted by the country in a bid to eliminate the issues presented above
have failed to bear fruit. Therefore, more progressive approaches must be applied with the aim of
injecting a more inclusive touch to it. The country should, therefore, employ a reparative and
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reconstructive justice system that looks into the roots of the problems before attempting to solve
them. A cure is therefore applied on the foundation of the problem, initiating a healing process
that engages the population and enlightens it on the way forward.
Economic problem; international economic situation
Statement of the problem
The economy of the Republic of Korea has experienced a steady rise over the years and
has established its place within the economic ranks in the world. However, the country is not
economically independent and as such relies on relations with other countries to sustain its
economy. Therefore, any hiccups within those relations impact directly on the economy of the
Republic of Korea, and must, therefore, be interrogated in earnest.
Background and factors
The situation in the country’s trading partners’ economies impact on the ultimate state of
the former’s economy. For instance, inflation in its neighboring countries’ economies places it a
clear trading disadvantage. These sentiments stem from the knowledge that Japan and China
comprise South Korea’s major trading partners. Therefore, a decline in their economic state
implies that commodities bought from them are priced lower than the goods from South Korea.
The same place the latter at a competitive disadvantage. Further, the country’s massive economic
exposure and dependence on the Chinese market creates a problem, especially with the financial
situations in China.
India
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India is in South Asia, bordering Burma & Pakistan with a geographical size of 3,287,263
sq. km. That is around one third more than the USA. The average rainfall in this country is
1,083. The climate in the north is temperate while tropical monsoon is experienced in the south.
India has vast natural resources including; coal, iron core, manganese mica, limestone and rare
earth elements. The land per capita is 2.59 sq. per 1000 km. The total population of India stands
at 1,259m with a growth rate of 1.21%. The birth rate is 20.24 per 1000 people, infant rate of
44.6 per 1000 people and death rate of 7.31 per 1000 people. The life expectancy is 68.35 years.
Their nationality is Indian. The main ethnic groups in this country are; Indo-Aryan comprising
65% of the total population, Dravidian (25%), and the rest occupy 3%. The literacy level is
62.8% (Keshava, 2014).
India has a GDP of 2,454. Billion USD and has a per capita of 1,475.17USD. The
unemployment rate is 8.4% and an inflation rate of 4.75%. Its exports are worth 264.02bn USD,
the main exporters being USA and UAE. The main import partners are China and UAE. The
imports are about 359,07bn USD. India has a trade balance of 93.05bn USD. People who have
attained the age of 16years can freely and voluntarily join the military. However, women cannot
be given combat roles. The military budget is around 42.84bn USD.
India has 346 airports and 14,500 km waterways. The road is the primary mode of
transport while mobile phones are the main communication tool. The Republic of India has a
federal republic government. New Delhi is the capital city. Its constitution was promulgated in
the year 1949. India has 28 states and seven union territories. Its legal regime is guided by
common law, and its judicial arm is headed by the Supreme Court which comprises of one chief
justice and other 25 associates. India has a bicameral government. The right to vote is for those
who have attained 18 years.
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Political problem; Insecurity and policies
Statement of the issue
Indian politics have faced a period of instability and tensions. The same is occasioned by
the numerous ethnic entities within the borders of the country (Naqvi, 2015). The instability
issues raised above are a consequence of the volatile nature of the groups present within the
country and the historical nature of the strife that exists amongst them.
Background of the problem.
This problem has dramatically been contributed by the high number of diverse groups
with remarkably different political ideologies. In comparison with other countries such as South
Korea and even the broader Europe, India has more bad politics. Among the significant political
figures who have been assassinated in the past include; Mahatma Gandhi who was assassinated
in the year 1941, Indira Gandhi in 1984 and also Rajiv Gandhi in 1991.
Factors bearing on the problem
India has a very high population composed of people from diverse backgrounds,
ethnicities, religions and even color. As a result, there are very many political ideologies being
spearheaded by the leaders of each group. Some of the ideas being championed are very emotive
due to this fact the political temperatures can be raised at a span of a few days. Politicians preach
hatred amongst their rival ethnic groups, and this increases hatred amongst the citizens.
Practical solutions and Recommendations
To curb this menace, laws should also be implemented to vindicate all those leaders who
encourage their supporters to engage in divisive politics. It should be noted that since the passing
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of The Right to Information Act in 2005, the political climate has dramatically changed in India.
The Act has encouraged transparency and accountability in different institutions thereby
reducing political tensions. If similar laws are enacted and implemented in the country, political
stability would easily be achieved.
To solve the issue of insecurity and politics, there is need to have the government of
national unity. This is a government that not only represents the interests of the whole country
but also a government that appears to represent their interests. To achieve this, the ruling
government should also undertake to include different sectors and groups including the
minorities in the government. The multiparty system should also be encouraged so that all parties
even the minorities and the marginalized grievances can be heard. Different parties from
different states have as a result played a significant role in this liberalization. Also, the different
independent institutions should be empowered so that they can implement the mandate the
constitution empowers them with.
Rationale for the recommendation
It can be argued that in all countries with developed democracy, the political leaders are
more civilized and always seem to be preaching issues to do with peace and unity among their
citizens. As a result, their democracies have dramatically grown (Agrawal, 2015). To add on
that, their institutions have been empowered and allocated a sufficient budget that enables them
to carry out their day to day activities. All interstate disputes or disputes arising from the central
government are settled by the Supreme Court. Its political parties can either be at a national
level or a state level. This stance, in essence, means that the Supreme Court should be
strengthened and not be intimidated by any political figure in their functions. There should also
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be collective security and state protection. In conclusion, there has been the high development in
how Indians run their politics since the 1990s. This has been brought about by several factors
including the growth of a more competitive multi-party system.
Economics in India
Statement of the issue
The most critical problem that the country faces economically is the lack of government
goodwill. Most of its population thrive in business and commerce, yet the government has over
the years failed to avail the requisite atmosphere to encourage the same. The government has
failed to provide financial and infrastructural support systems to stem the burgeoning population,
because only business and commerce may enlighten the people.
Background and factors bearing on the problem
Indian economy has been one of the fastest growing economies over the past few years.
However, this is currently no longer the case (Binswanger, 2013). Its economy is no longer
projected to grow as it was earlier anticipated. This state has raised significant concerns in the
economy sector. According to recent surveys, India is one of the countries where it is not easy to
do business in the world. It has been described as an unfriendly business democracy. This fact is
the main reason why its economy is not growing as protected. Because of this hostile
environment, several projects started and after that stalled in the past few years. Due to this
factor investors are no longer willing to invest in the country thus halting and crippling its
economy.
Practical solutions
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The Indian government must promote initiatives in its economic sector if it’s focused on
achieving its full growth potential. In the agricultural sector for example, which is the backbone
of its economy, there are questions why more than half of its population is employed in that
sector yet it accounts for only 14% of the economy. The government needs to for example give
subsidies and promote modern farming methods if it’s indeed keen on growing its economy
Recommendation
If the government is keen on achieving its full economic growth, it has to encourage and
promote reforms in this ailing economy sector. If it promotes and rewards initiatives in the
agricultural sector, the high rate of food inflation would significantly reduce. Proper reforms
would also ensure the budget deficits which in turn make its economy vulnerable are avoided. If
such reforms are done, the investors would also start gaining confidence to invest in this country
which has very high potential.
Rationale for the recommendation
In areas where the government has intervened and made reforms positive results have
been experienced. An example is an area where the government has funded its program to
increase the rate of employment. After the initiation of this program the rate of unemployment
reduced from 9.5% to 4.8% (Malhotra, 2014). This proves that if the government would now
focus on making it’s the country one of the best countries to do business in, then investors would,
in turn, be encouraged to invest and thereby promote its economic growth.
Comparative analysis
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An objective evaluation of the two countries reveals peculiar features, characteristics, and
problems that the respective countries are exposed to. However, there are similarities in their
circumstances as well as patent differences. For instances, the most prevalent problem of the
Indian dispensation is the influx in population. In as much as other problems arise, the
fundamental issue that needs to be solved is the amount of population in the country (Gupta &
Sharma, 2014). On the other hand, South Korea faces more administrative based problems,
which are easier solved at a technocrat level.
India has an asset in labor, though the amount of skilled personnel may be lower than that
of the Korean jurisdiction. However, the country has the potential of tapping into the same, by
empowering the population so that the country may engage in labor export programs. This move
promises to address two problems simultaneously, being the unemployment menace as well as
the lingering overpopulation issue.
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References
Agrawal, A. N. (2015). Indian economy. New Age International Pvt.
Binswanger-Mkhize, H. P. (2013). The stunted structural transformation of the Indian
economy. Economic and Political weekly, 48(26-27), 5-13.
Gupta, P., & Sharma, A. M. (2014). A study of the impact of corporate governance practices on
firm performance in Indian and South Korean companies. Procedia-Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 133, 4-11.
Keshava, S. R. (2014). Climate change, sustainable development and Indian
economy. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 4(7), 123.
Kihl, Y. W. (2015). Transforming Korean politics: democracy, reform, and culture. Routledge.
Kwon, S. H., & Kim, J. (2014). The cultural industry policies of the Korean government and the
Korean Wave. International journal of cultural policy, 20(4), 422-439.
Malhotra, B. (2014). Foreign Direct Investment: Impact on Indian Economy. Global Journal of
Business Management and Information Technology, 4(1), 17-23.
Manyin, M. E. (2014). US South Korea Relations. DIANE Publishing.
Naqvi, S. (2015). Capital Conquest. How the AAP’s Incredible Victory has Redefined Indian
Politics.
Stubbs, R. (2017). Rethinking Asia’s economic miracle: The political economy of war, prosperity
and crisis. Palgrave.

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