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1) Choose a video example from Unit 1 and write a 150-word journal about it. What culture creates this music? Can you name any of the instruments? What behaviors or activities are associated with this music? Also include your personal thoughts or feelings about your chosen audio/video example. Do you like it/dislike it? Why did you choose this particular example?2) complete the intro study guide in the attachments
ewm_intro.pdf

study_guide_intro_online.docx

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The purpose of this ir -‘ – of thc uorld. cultu-.
Directing outselre- . ,
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backgrourd-and to :: :r
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sic and musicallite .
w i t h r – h c ior u n t t . ‘ ‘ . .
( i 6 u . . ) n L h e . i ‘ .B d : m u ‘ i r . ,o r ” e r h r i r . : . . . ‘
denricor art music :
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rr( ol FuroPe. lt. aca-
: – – – – – – . , . – r . i a r t r a d i t i o n sa,m o n g
: -: . : :l najor culture areas
a: .
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rc mu.icr of tlre ”
or blocks, devotins ,’-:-:
L h e r ei s a g r r a Ld e : r l
n r a L l e ri t r r h . * h o l :
so. drcre are largc ir.. ‘
– – _] CFN4U5IC
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In order to provide a degree of depth as well as breadth, we have had to be
selectiye.We can do no more than provide excursionsthat, taken together.rrrjl
provide the reader a picrure of tJreway the world,s peoplesmake music. rF:-^
about it, use it in their lives, and alsowhat all this music soundslike and hor,. :::
sructured. The worldt musical diversity is reflected to some degreein tie .:r-.:sity of the organization of our chapters,but there are some things on r-hc,, :,
chapterstouch. In eachchapter,we first focus on a detailed descriptiono: l :- _sical event that may be considered broadly representativeof iti culru:: –:.
Ordinarily, this is followed by an introduction to the culturesand socie::: ,, _.=
area; then a more slmthetic ffearnent of nusical life and ideas abour :: _.::- .rm u s i c asl r y l et d e > c r j b eidn r e r m sc o m p r e h e n s i bbl ey n o n s p e c i a l i s r:s- ,: .tory and musicalinstruments;a brief descriptionof a few addiuonal;::*i::: ==:res or contexts;and finall11a considerationof recent development. -: :
-_m u 5 i cW
. e d e ‘ c r i b em u ‘ i c a lc u l t u r e sa sL h e Je { s r L o d a yb.u t * h e r e , : _ : – : . . .- .
provide some information about their history We do this in sor:=:-,::=::.
dispel the nodon that Western academicor art music lives in a ser,. -i-: _- ::.
j
E X C UR SI O NS I N W O R L D M U S I C
history r-hereasthe musicsof otier societieshaveno history at all, or at best a
very different sort of hisrory
ltrreshould make one thing clear right now: Every musical system-that is,
the music and musical life of each rosig6., from the multifarious society of
Nes’York Cin to a natile mazonian tdbe of rwo hundred persons-is a very
compler phenomenon that mar be analvzedand comprehendedfrom rnany
perspecti’es.\ e cenainh ri’ould not be able to provide the amount of detail
necessan-to illustrare rhis point lbr all the cultures and musicswith which we
deal. lb thereibre huoduce the s’orld! musical complexity selectiyely,each
chaptertearurre o:e or a tis concepts.Thus, in additionto providing a set
of general an: :::-,l:
::_-
:1:
t C:,.::.:
,- : -,-:r -jr;. ::,:ides informationon the studyof his– ::. :::,:-.–:: I
-:. -.: : —-::S lrit}Iout Writtenrecords.
. C-:;-.
1 :’::-:.
-, -:=s rrsight into the interactionof
-:. —,. -r j:–::.
::’::
=::rl urbanizedmusicthough
f :::-:- –. or er,,:- – :- -. founr : ,::
– : :: =:=- -.-: chapter,we havetried to provide an
::::i
.: .::.- :::eth’to many of the kinds of music
.-,. : -= ::::-::nces betli’een East, central, and
I N T R O D U C T l O NS
: T U D Y I N CM U S I C SO F T H Ew O R L D ‘ S C U L T U R E S
Mariachibandplayingduring
fiestain the streetsof San
Antonio,Texas.Photographer:
LawrenceMigdale.Source:
LawrenceMigdale/Pix.
West Ai:ica, betweenrural and urban musics;Chapter 11 gives an overviewof
the musics of the hundreds of Native North American tribes.
Although we believe that our accounts achieve this kind of breadth, we
also wish to show the reader the depth of musical culture, the many things
that go into the composing, performance, and understanding of even a simple song or ritual, its history and the effectsit has, and how it is perceivedand
judged by the people who render it and who hear it. We have tried to
accomplish this by concentrating, in each chapter, on a limited number of
representative cultures, communities, events, and even instruments within
the broad geographical area tl-ratit covers. Thus, in Chapter 3, the author
concentrateson Iran, where he had done original research,to impart a sense
ofthe many things to be noted, even though spacelimitations prevent giving
the sameattention to the Arabic peninsula or Tirrkey. Chapter 8 presentsthe
scopeofEuropean music, with all its i’arietf through the prism of the city of
Menna.
One of our purposesis to er.plainmusic as a cultural phenomenon.We do
hope to persuadethe readersto listen to music of at least some of the world’s
many societiesand to find it enjoyable.But the idea that music is principally to
be “enjoyed” is a notion characteristic of Western culture, not necessarily
sharedby other societies.Indeed, much of the music we will be discussinghas
purposesfar beyond enjol’rnent.The significanceofmuch of the world’s music
is in the realm of religion and society, in the way humans interact with the
supernaturaland with eachother. In some societies,music identifies clansand
social classes,confirms political starus,expressescommunication from tlle supernaflLral, and cures the sick. Thus, although readers will want to lrrow how
:CU RSJO
N S J NW O R L DM U S I C
the musical piecesof the world’s cultures are put together and what general
principles of com-positionma)r dominate in a gir.en societp it is perhais even
more important for thern to understandeach cuirure! ideas of what music is.
what its powers are, horv it relatesto other aspectsof life, and how it reflects
important things about its people and their rieri- of rhe world. For this reason.
although we lish to explain the narure oi musical sound,we also have ried to
present a holistic picture oi musical lile and musical culture.
l ”
i ” J O T E’ 3
–i
–. :: CF FICAR{}
-.-::t::.s of -,]re
Our purpose is ro :::’=:: -_:-,=
]l,orld,smusics and to present
several-wars o.’-lc,,,-i= :: :::s-:_ :, c: -Sem necessaryfor understanding a
particular u ork ,:: ::=:: :. :: ::.=.::= *i-,1-rits culture in many ways. The
worldt music ji:-:::=,. -;: –.::
1 =,::111culture, and we ill1,st.”te”o.,rap_
-ir’,proach first
:-::=::::
:: : i,:i
i:amiliar to many readers,Moza.i,s
opera.,The).[,i ‘.’:.;,.-.. -‘- ;;:,:_,’ , tamed Le NozzerJiFigaro).Its sttuc_
ture rs an a.Li:=-::_
:::,:::-,:i. ,:: uirich the action is carried forward
through quici ::,- ::= .:.
:: _:.-t-r arias and vocal ensemblessuch as
trios and qir:: ::,:. :: – ,’ _-::._ = -. ::ake hrical and contempladvestate_
-.,:
ments or ie::.:
:; — –= ,–_:i. Knorring rhis tells us something
about the 2::-:: -: –‘.. .
_ -,_. -:- :..*entionspanof the patrons.But ii
–:
also teils u: :: ::.:
: .- : – __-irato spokendrama,about the way
Mozart anc ‘:j::r -..r:-: : _. :_-. .:edtheir audience,perceivedthe re_
:
– —:i:
larionshio
—–:
-i.-r
The t:::
! _- -: : ‘, _:- Iialian words about events in Spain
perhapsa :::-:– : ,.:: :.::.-.,;:’ :, : German-speaking
Austrian for a
– -. .:::. .::aks
German-s:=:- : :–:::-:
to this r;lationshipaswell. The
well-edue:=–:, . ,. —=
– : ;::om Figaror””, .o-porJd presumably
understoc: -‘r–: r: : – .: -:,. .::tl’iedge”set them off {iom th” g..r”r”l
p o p u l a d o : -. – : – – . . – . : – – , _ , 😮 p e r a isn G e r m a n a
, ndsoweieethis
work as;: =::-: -i,-: — : . -:=-::– ri-rociery.Bur this elite alsocomesin
for criil:ts: :- :- : – : :- – ‘ -_:- :.::. ::cause the plot actuallydepictsa kind
—:
ofsoci:l:=. – – .-:-::: cler-erbar6.r,*rrrt, to orotecthis fi_
-r -:– t:iOre
.:Eanceeir-‘.. : =
thejr hone)rmOon
With hiS bOSS,
the cou::: –,. , -:-:
. . : – – : – : – : i o o k p l a c ep
, a i t o f t h e c o n t r a cb
t e’:::.:::arO
fir’een.— -:- -.-: :.-,-::-S u C c e e dOSf ,c O U r Swei,t h O u vt i ,
o l e n c e: . : : – , : – : , – , – – : – : : . – : , . – : i – : sh a p p i l ye v e ra f t e qb u t w h e nt h i s
Oper3ii’:; —.. – -… :. : : :: _ : – ::-::; -,heeyebrOwS
Of the AUStrianariS_
tocrla..
ll :– . -.- -j :: ::—-::r :: : .-:-rt
qeniusin his om day,but notv
he :::-:. –i-: :,–: :– – ,::;.-.
_
:
:
s
i -hci s t o r i a n s .I n h i s l i l e t i m e
–:
-.-:,.
( 1 .i t * l
.-:::
– . . : – : : m u s i ch a dn o t r e a l l yb e e nd e v e l i_i:: – r-_:–: _: -. : _:csers did not expectit to become
ope:.=__r -‘-,’:
“_:
grea::-:: :, :.- r
-,– j _ : :-t. j oneof the eTeatmusicalworlis
– ,- –:
oiJ -=.
— :- :. ,,:::.r. ro be finJ entertainment.In
I N T R O D U C T I O NS: T U D Y I N CM U S I C SO F T H E W O R L D , SC U L T U R E S
Mozart’s time, the difference in musical style between academic music and music for oopular entertainment wasnt all that great; the two sounded rather
alike. Around 1800 this beganto change,and todaywe expectacademicmusic,
what we call “classical”oi”art” musii, to sound quite different from popular
mustc,
By now Mozart has become a deity among composers,and much is said
and -ritten about the greamessol Figaro’ In today’s American society, the
conceptsof genius and ialent, innate abilities that set an artist apart, are importait to niosical culture. Underlying thesebeliefs are the oft-repeated stoiies that Mozart already composed acieptable music at the age of seven and
that he composed maiterworks with enormous speed, as if they sprang
ready-made from his brain. We have developed,it seems,a kind of athletic
view of music: We are impressedwhen something takes many hours to accomplish, or when someonecan carry out significant w-ork quickly, or when
o, p”rformer can accomplish an extremelYdifficult task of mem”ory
“o-por.,
or d”r,t”tity. A quick look at Tbe Mal”riage of Figwo tells us certain
essentialthings aboui the culture of Mozart’s time, but more significantly,
becausethis o’perais an important component of musical life today, it also
conveys the musical values-and attitudes of the musical cultrrre of at least
some North Americans.
But these observations raise several questions. For one thing, the members
of one societysuch astJroseof the United Statesdont necessarilysharemusical identities’and values.Those ofus for whom classicalmusic is the “home”
music have different criteria for iudging music than t1rosewhose normal musical experienceis rock music, or coultry music, or hip-hop, or church music, or
of Afiican American or Hispanic music’ And of
some of the many genres
“that
make some of us extol Moztrt and Figaro may not be
course, tlre attitodes
For example,possessinggreat technical skill
societies.
the attitodes of oiher
for
may not have been a criterion
iudging a song in most NadYe American soand the concept of the musical work as something that may not be al”i”ies.
tered and must always-beperformed asthe composerintended it is not releYant
to understandingthe music oflndia.
But it also iould be a mistake to seethe musical world as bifurcated, the
classicaltradition with its masterworks siuchx Fignro on one side and the rest
of the worldt music on the otier. Fzgaroactually fits well into the world’s musical picture. Many societieshave drama rather like opera, in which the char,”t”r, ,iog; many’have forms of communication that, like Italian recitative’
fall betweln ordinary speechand song; in many sociedes,music is usedto expresscriticism of.oii”iy. Social elites everywherehave musi’al ways of s1’rntotzing their superiority: artistic resourcessuch as the orchestra, linguistic
techniq:uessuch as having opera in a foreign language’And we will need to
that just as ttie ftropean view of Mozart has changed since.his
,”-.-‘b.,
death, all sociedeschange in their views of music as well as in their musical
styles. And, further, although Western academic musical culture requires
constant innovation and t”pid change as a hallmark of its series of masterworks, other societiesrnay resnict and inhibit change as detrimental to ttre
E X C U R S I O NISN W O R L D M U S I C
function of music. The ideas about music that a society has, and contexts of
creation and performance, help us to understand the music itself, which in
turn provides insight into the valuesrhat led to it and the culture of which it
is a part.
C E R T ANI B A S I CA S S U M P T I O N S
In presentingthe rrorld’s musical cultures,thesechaptersemploy certain basic
assumptiols.
A Relatiristic lenIf Tbe lLnrbg
er-fQor i a s*rer rort of musig fris must be becausefor its
consumers-{nrwr:ms
loii,{msir:ans rlio listen to operas-it satisfiescertain
criteria: It k a *ui a: ererr co@sic
irs smrcnrre has internal logic; it has
harmonr anti “u’n’r-a-gim. rh*etr
seser:l sinultaneous melodies are both in’
+ rix c’-rr4n
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