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•7 to 8 pages or 3,750 to 4,250 words •1.5 spaced •Bibliography with at least 5 sources•The important thing about choosing a topic is to pick one that you’re interested in, and that is complex enough to involve the kinds of analyses and systems perspective that industrial ecology requires. Some people have written about specific technology systems and others about scenarios involving engineered. But it’s always more fun to write about something you’re interested in, so start there.•Pick an Earth Systems topic which is both broad in scope and also contains a wicked side, complex feedback loops, high degree of interconnectedness and then present environmental and social impacts•Examples–Meat grown in factories from stem cells — technology systems–Florida Everglades and sugar cane – engineered system–Floating island country/cities – engineered system–Trans Africa railroad – engineered system–Lethal robots for military use – technology system–Colorado River water management across western states – engineered systemhttps://www.southampton.ac.uk/englishforengineers/… Use the attached files to help. Thanks! (Using the textbook Reconstructing Earth by Braden Allenby might be helpful)
esem_and_adaptive_management_principles_2017.ppt

consultant_report_rubric_cee400_1_.docx

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Earth Systems Engineering and Management
CEE 400
Week 3:
Earth Systems Engineering and Management
Earth Systems Engineering and Management
• Earth Systems Engineering and Management is the capability to
design, engineer, and manage, through dialog and continual
feedback, integrated built/human/natural systems that achieve the
multivariate and sometimes mutually exclusive goals and desires
of humanity, including at the least personal, social, economic,
technological, and environmental dimensions, within the
constraints imposed by the states and dynamics of existing
complex adaptive systems.
Earth Systems Engineering and Management
Dialog, not Problem Solution
Earth Systems
Engineering
Planning
Fundamental systems in
temporal or spatial scale,
displaying complex,
unpredictable and
discontinuous behavior and
characterized by emergent
characteristics.
Two (coupled) categories:
Primarily non-human
Primarily human
What is current
state?
Can it be
rationally and
morally
improved, and,
if so, how?
and Management
Designing Construction Management
Conscious
activity
Of all or part
of relevant
system; itself
Moral
an activity
responsibility
subject to
for outcome
moral and
rational
critique
Managing complex
systems a poorly
understood and nascent art
(“The Learning
Organization”)
A process and dialog, not a
control exercise
“Adaptive Management”
of complex resource
systems (the Baltic, the
Everglades) an example
Hydrologic/agriculture ESEM system model schematic
Large-Scale Data Systems and Models
(National Weather Service forecasts, global analysis data, general
circulation models)
Temperature
Humidity
Rain
Pressure
Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation Models
(Regional atmospheric and land-surface information)
Land Analysis System
(Hydrological
characteristics of each
watershed using digital
elevation data)
Subsystems
Rain and Snow
Radiation
Temperature
Humidity
Wind
Pressure
Watershed Hydrology Models
(Surface and subsurface hydrology at individual watersheds)
Runoff
Soil water
River flow
Local Atmospheric and Hydrological Models
(Riverflow, local weather, land-surface information)
+
Response
Evaluations
Agriculture
and crop
system models
Water
infrastructure
modifications
Infrastructure
models
Intra-and
interspecific
crop
modifications
Economic
models
Population
models
Land use
models
Food
storage/delivery
infrastructure
upgrades.
.
.
Source: Based on Science and Technology Review
Industrial Ecology Collection, 1996, p.34, Allenby, in
press, C.
Six Major Phases of Systems Analysis
• Determine goals of system (requires dialog with client,
stakeholders, and system)
• Establish criteria for ranking alternatives
• Develop alternative solutions (including technological,
functional, social and long-term structural alternatives)
Based on J. E. Gibson, How To Do a Systems Analysis, University of Virginia, 2000.
Six Major Phases of Systems Analysis
• Rank alternative solutions. Here, you must include
nonperformance considerations such as:
– What are effects on non-users or minor stakeholders?
– What are the effects of piecemeal or incremental implementation?
– Impact on/coupling to existing systems
– Sensitivity to parameter variations (look for robust solutions)
– Ratification procedures (systems solutions almost always require political
acceptability in real world)
Six Major Phases of Systems Analysis
• Iterate on both implementation and system response (learning process)
• Action (should be tied back to goals, and may be continuing process rather
than end of analysis)
ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
Derived from the experience of natural resource economists, managers,
and ecologists, adaptive management attempts to develop “ways for active
adaptation and learning in dealing with uncertainty in the management of
complex regional ecosystems.” The approach must be “seen as a strategic
one of adaptive policy management, of science in the appropriate scales,
and of understanding human behavior, not a procedural one of institutional
controls.” Specifically, it requires:
1. Integrated policies, not piecemeal ones.
2. Flexible, adaptive policies, not rigid, locked-in ones.
Adapted from L.H. Guncerson, C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light, eds. 1995. Barriers and bridges to the renewal of
ecosystems and institutions. New York: Columbia University Press.
ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT
3. Management and planning for learning, not simply for economic
or social product.
4. Monitoring designed as a part of active interventions to achieve
understanding and to identify remedial response, not monitoring
for monitoring’s sake.
5. Investment in eclectic science, not just in controlled science.
6. Citizen involvement and partnership to build “civic science”, not
public information programs to inform passively.
Earth Systems Engineering and Management Principles: Theory
 Only intervene when required and to the extent required (humility in the face of complexity).
 At the level of earth systems engineering and management (ESEM), projects and programs are not
just technical and scientific in nature, but unavoidably have powerful cultural, ethical, and religious
dimensions.
 Unnecessary conflict surrounding ESEM projects and programs can be reduced by separating
social engineering from technical engineering dimensions.
 ESEM requires a focus on systems as systems, rather than as just constituent artifacts; a dynamic,
rather than static, mental model of underlying phenomenon.
 Boundaries around ESEM projects and programs should reflect real world couplings and linkages
through time, rather than disciplinary or ideological simplicity.
 Major shifts in technologies and technological systems should be evaluated before, rather than
after, implementation.
Earth Systems Engineering and Management Principles:
Design and Engineering
 ESEM initiatives should be characterized by explicit and transparent objectives or desired performance criteria, with
quantitative metrics which permit continuous evaluation of system evolution (and signal when problematic system
states may be increasingly likely).
 Design, engineering, and implementation of ESEM initiatives must not be based on implicit or explicit models of
centralized control in the traditional rigid sense. Rather than attempting to completely define or dominate a system, the
ESEM professional will have to see themselves as an integral component of the system, coupled with its evolution and
subject to many of its dynamics. This will require a completely different psychology of engineering.
 ESEM projects should be incremental and reversible to the extent possible.
 ESEM should aim for resiliency, not just redundancy, in systems design. A resilient system resists degradation and,
when it must, degrades gracefully even under unanticipated assaults; a redundant system may have a backup
mechanism for a particular subsystem, but still may be subject to unpredicted catastrophic failures.
 ESEM should aim for inherently safe design, so that the system fails, when it must, in a noncatastrophic way.
Earth Systems Engineering and Management Principles: Governance
 ESEM projects and programs by definition raise important scientific, technical, economic, political, ethical, theological
and cultural issues, so you need a governance model which is democratic, transparent, and accountable.
 ESEM governance mechanisms should foster inclusive, multicultural dialog.
 ESEM governance models, which deal with complex, unpredictable systems, must accept high levels of unpredictability
and uncertainty. Thus, ESEM policy development and implementation is a dialog with the relevant systems, rather than
finding a “solution” to a “problem”.
ESEM governance systems should accordingly place a premium on flexibility and the ability to evolve in response to
changes in system state.
The earth systems engineers and the policymakers need to understand themselves, and be seen by the public, as part
of an evolving ESEM system, rather than as agents outside the system guiding it.
 The ESEM environment and the complexity of the systems at issue require explicit mechanisms for assuring continual
learning, including ways in which assimilation of the learning by stakeholders can be facilitated.
 There must be adequate resources available to support both the immediate ESEM project and the science and
technology research and development necessary to ensure that the responses of the relevant systems are understood.
Model: Carbon Cycle Management
• Step 1: Reduce emissions
• Step 2: Capture emissions (carbon sequestration)
• Step 3: Design atmosphere (ambient carbon dioxide
management)
• Step 4: Integrated earth systems engineering and management –
carbon cycle management as human condition, not “problem” to
be “solved”
Kyoto Process and Earth System Engineering
Kyoto Process
Earth System Engineering
End-of-Pipe mentality
Management of co-evolving human and
natural systems
Reduce human impact
(control CO2 emissions)
Manage carbon cycle – in light of other
systems
Morality play
(“no pain, no gain”)
Social, economic and environmental
objectives important
Nation state process
Integrated firm, NGO, nation state, and
community process
Ad hoc
(e.g., biomass as silver bullet)
Systematic
(e.g., what does biomass do to N cycle?)
Social engineering/ethical issues
disguised as S&T discourse
Integrated set of ethical, cultural and
S&T issues
Ideological and static
(“privilege the present”)
On-going non-teleological evolutionary
process
Carbon Cycle Governance System
CO2 Emitted
Biomass
Fossil Fuel Energy Production System
Electricity
Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Fixed Uses
Fossil Fuel
Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Buildings
Mobile Uses
(e.g., transportation)
Fossil Fuel Power Plant
H2
Control Functions
Input: B + MW
Fossil Fuel
Municipal
Waste
Output: CO2 Emitted
CO2 Sequestered
CO2 Sequestered
Target CO2 Concentration
Metric: in Atmosphere
Earth Systems Engineering and Management:
Climate Change- Carbon Cycle Schematic
Nitrogen,
phosphorus, sulfur
cycles
Biosphere
Atmosphere and
Oceanic Systems
Hydrologic
cycle
Carbon cycle
Other cycles
Engineering/
Management of
Earth system
relationships
Human systems:
economic, cultural,
religious, etc
Geoengineering
Energy
system
options
Genetic
engineering and
biotechnology
Other
Technology
systems
Information
technology and
services (e.g.,
telework)
Ocean
fertilization
Fish farming,
etc
Fossil fuel
industry, etc.
Biomass
agriculture
Earth System
Engineering
Other
options
Engineering/
Management of
carbon cycle
Organic chemical
industry, etc.
Implementation at firm, facility, technology and process level
Scope of traditional
engineering disciplines
Life cycle carbon and nitrogen fluxes for bio-based products
Current status of bioproducts
Corn
Soybean
Sugarcan
e,
Sugarbee
ts
Cellulosic
Material
trees,
grasses,
crop
residue
Starchy
crops



Seeds
sunflower,
rape,
safflower
New
Crops
Kenaf,
cuphea,
milkweed,
sorghum
Algae
Food
wastes
Animal
byproducts
manure,
tallow,
cheese
whey
Energy
Ethanol


Biodiesel
Other
(gaseous, H2,
direct
combustion)




▲●







▲●
Materials
Aggregates for
construction


solvents/inks/paints
plastics/polymers





lubricants

specialty chemicals










● Currently in production ▲ Active research area ■ Potential exists for further development
Generalized LCA Results
• Bio-based products have…
– Reduced fossil energy consumption
– Reduced CO2 emissions
– Significant NO3- emissions (not found in fossil fuel counterparts)
– Greater disruptions of N cycle
– Highly variable, difficult to measure, highly complex models
– Generally not included
Disruptions in C and N Cycles
• CO2 concentrations increased 31 ± 4% 1750 to 2010
• N2O concentrations increased ~15% over same period
• Flux of atmospheric N2 to reactive nitrogen compounds has
increased over 1100%
Nitrogen-related Impacts
• Excess reactive nitrogen responsible for many
environmental problems
NH3
Acidification
N2O
Smog Formation
NOx
Human Health
NO3-
Eutrophication/Hypoxia
Global Warming
Ozone Depletion
Disruptions in C and N Cycles
• Fossil fuel combustion responsible for majority of carbon cycle disruption
• Agricultural activities are responsible for ~75% of nitrogen cycle
disruption
– Haber-Bosch process
– Increased cultivation of rice, soybeans (biological nitrogen fixation)
• C & N cycles in agriculture are highly linked
CONSULTANT REPORT RUBRIC
Criteria
Description
Good content
and analysis
Structured
with specific
recommendations to their
client.
Paper has introductory,
evidential, and conclusive
statements.
Stays close to range of
3,750 to 7,250 words.
Word Count
Good grammar
Proper
References
It is not hard to interpret
the meaning of
statements because of
poor grammar.
Paper has both APA
format in-text and
bibliographic citations
(numbering at least 5).
Percentage of
Grade
25%
25%
25%
12.5%
12.5%

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