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1. What is the difference between a store-and forward switch and a cut-through switch?2. List four common LAN topologies and briefly describe their methods of operation.3. List some basic functions performed at the MAC layer.4. Consider a baseband bus with a number of equally spaced stations with a data rate of10 Mbps and a bus length of 1 km.a. What is the mean time to send a frame of 1000 bits to another station, measuredfrom the beginning of transmission to the end of reception? Assume a propagation speed ofb. If two stations begin to transmit at exactly the same time, their packets will interfere with each other. If each transmitting station monitors the bus during transmission, how long before it notices an interference, in seconds? In bit times?5. A tree topology is to be provided that spans two buildings. If permission can be obtained to string cable between the two buildings, one continuous tree layout will beused. Otherwise, each building will have an independent tree topology network and a point-to-point link will connect a special communications station on one networkwith a communications station on the other network. What functions must the communications stations perform? Repeat for ring and star.
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DATA AND COMPUTER
COMMUNICATIONS
Eighth Edition
William Stallings
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data on File
Vice President and Editorial Director, ECS:
Marcia J. Horton
Executive Editor: Tracy Dunkelberger
Assistant Editor: Carole Snyder
Editorial Assistant: Christianna Lee
Executive Managing Editor: Vince O’Brien
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Production Editor: Rose Kernan
Director of Creative Services: Paul Belfanti
Creative Director: Juan Lopez
Cover Designer: Bruce Kenselaar
Managing Editor,AV Management and Production:
Patricia Burns
Art Editor: Gregory Dulles
Director, Image Resource Center: Melinda Reo
Manager, Rights and Permissions: Zina Arabia
Manager,Visual Research: Beth Brenzel
Manager, Cover Visual Research and Permissions:
Karen Sanatar
Manufacturing Manager, ESM: Alexis Heydt-Long
Manufacturing Buyer: Lisa McDowell
Executive Marketing Manager: Robin O’Brien
Marketing Assistant: Mack Patterson
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
Pearson Prentice Hall™ is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc.
All other tradmarks or product names are the property of their respective owners.
The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book.These efforts include the
development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness.The author and
publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentation
contained in this book.The author and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential
damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs.
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN: 0-13-243310-9
Pearson Education Ltd., London
Pearson Education Australia Pty. Ltd., Sydney
Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd.
Pearson Education North Asia Ltd., Hong Kong
Pearson Education Canada, Inc., Toronto
Pearson Educaci n de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.
Pearson Education Japan, Tokyo
Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd.
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey
For my scintillating wife
ATS
WEB SITE FOR DATA AND COMPUTER
COMMUNICATIONS, EIGHTH EDITION
The Web site at WilliamStallings.com/DCC/DCC8e.html provides support for instructors and
students using the book. It includes the following elements.
Course Support Materials
The course support materials include
• Copies of figures from the book in PDF format
• A detailed set of course notes in PDF format suitable for student handout or
for use as viewgraphs
• A set of PowerPoint slides for use as lecture aids
• Computer Science Student Support Site: contains a number of links and
documents that the student may find useful in his/her ongoing computer
science education. The site includes a review of basic, relevant mathematics;
advice on research, writing, and doing homework problems; links to
computer science research resources, such as report repositories and
bibliographies; and other useful links.
• An errata sheet for the book, updated at most monthly
T
DCC Courses
The DCC8e Web site includes links to Web sites for courses taught using the book. These
sites can provide useful ideas about scheduling and topic ordering, as well as a number of
useful handouts and other materials.
Useful Web Sites
The DCC8e Web site includes links to relevant Web sites, organized by chapter. The links
cover a broad spectrum of topics and will enable students to explore timely issues in greater
depth.
iv
WEB SITE FOR DATA AND COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS, EIGHTH EDITION
v
Supplemental Documents
The DCC8e Web site includes a number of documents that expand on the treatment in the
book. Topics include standards organizations, Sockets, TCP/IP checksum, ASCII, and the
sampling theorem.
Internet Mailing List
An Internet mailing list is maintained so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and the author. Subscription information
is provided at the book’s Web site.
Simulation and Modeling Tools
The Web site includes links to the cnet Web site and the modeling tools Web site. These packages can be used to analyze and experiment with protocol and network design issues. Each
site includes downloadable software and background information. The instructor’s manual
includes more information on loading and using the software and suggested student projects.
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CONTENTS
Web Site for Data and Computer Communications
Preface
iv
xv
Chapter 0 Reader’s and Instructor’s Guide
0.1
Outline of the Book 2
0.2
Roadmap 3
0.3
Internet and Web Resources 5
0.4
Standards 6
1
PART ONE OVERVIEW 9
Chapter 1 Data Communications, Data Networking, and the Internet 10
1.1
Data Communications and Networking for Today’s Enterprise 12
1.2
A Communications Model 16
1.3
Data Communications 19
1.4
Networks 22
1.5
The Internet 25
1.6
An Example Configuration 29
Chapter 2 Protocol Architecture, TCP/IP, and Internet-Based Applications
2.1
The Need for a Protocol Architecture 33
2.2
The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture 34
2.3
The OSI Model 42
2.4
Standardization within a Protocol Architecture 44
2.5
Traditional Internet-Based Applications 48
2.6
Multimedia 48
2.7
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 53
2.8
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 54
Appendix 2A The Trivial File Transfer Protocol 57
PART TWO DATA COMMUNICATIONS 62
Chapter 3 Data Transmission 65
3.1
Concepts and Terminology 67
3.2
Analog and Digital Data Transmission 78
3.3
Transmission Impairments 86
3.4
Channel Capacity 91
3.5
Recommended Reading and Web Site 96
3.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
Appendix 3A Decibels and Signal Strength 99
32
96
Chapter 4 Transmission Media 102
4.1
Guided Transmission Media 104
4.2
Wireless Transmission 117
4.3
Wireless Propagation 125
vii
viii
CONTENTS
4.4
4.5
4.6
Line-of-Sight Transmission 129
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 133
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 134
Chapter 5 Signal Encoding Techniques 138
5.1
Digital Data, Digital Signals 141
5.2
Digital Data, Analog Signals 151
5.3
Analog Data, Digital Signals 162
5.4
Analog Data, Analog Signals 168
5.5
Recommended Reading 175
5.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
175
Chapter 6 Digital Data Communication Techniques 180
6.1
Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission 182
6.2
Types of Errors 186
6.3
Error Detection 186
6.4
Error Correction 196
6.5
Line Configurations 201
6.6
Recommended Reading 203
6.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 204
Chapter 7 Data Link Control Protocols 207
7.1
Flow Control 209
7.2
Error Control 216
7.3
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) 222
7.4
Recommended Reading 228
7.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 229
Appendix 7A Performance Issues 232
Chapter 8 Multiplexing 239
8.1
Frequency-Division Multiplexing 242
8.2
Synchronous Time-Division Multiplexing 248
8.3
Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing 258
8.4
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 265
8.5
xDSL 268
8.6
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 269
8.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 270
Chapter 9 Spread Spectrum 274
9.1
The Concept of Spread Spectrum 276
9.2
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 277
9.3
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 282
9.4
Code-Division Multiple Access 287
9.5
Recommended Reading and Web Site 290
9.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems
291
CONTENTS
PART THREE WIDE AREA NETWORKS 295
Chapter 10 Circuit Switching and Packet Switching 297
10.1
Switched Communications Networks 299
10.2
Circuit Switching Networks 301
10.3
Circuit Switching Concepts 304
10.4
Softswitch Architecture 307
10.5
Packet-Switching Principles 309
10.6
X.25 317
10.7
Frame Relay 319
10.8
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 324
10.9
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 325
Chapter 11 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 328
11.1
Protocol Architecture 329
11.2
ATM Logical Connections 331
11.3
ATM Cells 335
11.4
Transmission of ATM Cells 340
11.5
ATM Service Categories 345
11.6
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 348
11.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 349
Chapter 12 Routing in Switched Networks 351
12.1
Routing in Packet-Switching Networks 352
12.2
Examples: Routing in ARPANET 362
12.3
Least-Cost Algorithms 367
12.4
Recommended Reading 372
12.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 373
Chapter 13 Congestion Control in Data Networks 377
13.1
Effects of Congestion 379
13.2
Congestion Control 383
13.3
Traffic Management 386
13.4
Congestion Control in Packet-Switching Networks
13.5
Frame Relay Congestion Control 388
13.6
ATM Traffic Management 394
13.7
ATM-GFR Traffic Management 406
13.8
Recommended Reading 409
13.9
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 410
Chapter 14 Cellular Wireless Networks 413
14.1
Principles of Cellular Networks 415
14.2
First Generation Analog 427
14.3
Second Generation CDMA 429
14.4
Third Generation Systems 437
14.5
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 440
14.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 441
387
ix
x
CONTENTS
PART FOUR LOCAL AREA NETWORKS 444
Chapter 15 Local Area Network Overview 446
15.1
Background 448
15.2
Topologies and Transmission Media 451
15.3
LAN Protocol Architecture 457
15.4
Bridges 465
15.5
Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 473
15.6
Recommended Reading and Web Site 478
15.7
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 479
Chapter 16 High-Speed LANs 482
16.1
The Emergence of High-Speed LANs 483
16.2
Ethernet 485
16.3
Fibre Channel 500
16.4
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 504
16.5
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 506
Appendix 16A Digital Signal Encoding for LANs 508
Appendix 16B Performance Issues 514
Appendix 16C Scrambling 518
Chapter 17 Wireless LANs 522
17.1
Overview 523
17.2
Wireless LAN Technology 528
17.3
IEEE 802.11 Architecture and Services 531
17.4
IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control 535
17.5
IEEE 802.11Physical Layer 543
17.6
IEEE 802.11 Security Considerations 549
17.7
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 550
17.8
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 551
PART FIVE INTERNET AND TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS
Chapter 18 Internetwork Protocols 556
18.1
Basic Protocol Functions 558
18.2
Principles of Internetworking 566
18.3
Internet Protocol Operation 569
18.4
Internet Protocol 576
18.5
IPv6 586
18.6
Virtual Private Networks and IP Security 596
18.7
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 599
18.8
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 600
Chapter 19 Internetwork Operation 603
19.1
Multicasting 605
19.2
Routing Protocols 614
19.3
Integrated Services Architecture 625
19.4
Differentiated Services 636
554
CONTENTS
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
Service Level Agreements 645
IP Performance Metrics 646
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 649
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 651
Chapter 20 Transport Protocols 655
20.1
Connection-Oriented Transport Protocol Mechanisms
20.2
TCP 674
20.3
TCP Congestion Control 683
20.4
UDP 693
20.5
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 695
20.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 695
PART SIX
Chapter 21
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
xi
657
INTERNET APPLICATIONS 699
Network Security 701
Security Requirements and Attacks 703
Confidentiality with Conventional Encryption 705
Message Authentication and Hash Functions 713
Public-Key Encryption and Digital Signatures 720
Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security 727
IPv4 and IPv6 Security 732
Wi-Fi Protected Access 737
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 739
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 740
Chapter 22 Internet Applications—Electronic Mail and Network Management
22.1
Electronic Mail: SMTP and MIME 745
22.2
Network Management: SNMP 760
22.3
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 770
22.4
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 771
743
Chapter 23 Internet Applications—Internet Directory Service and World Wide Web
23.1
Internet Directory Service: DNS 774
23.2
Web Access: HTTP 784
23.3
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 795
23.4
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 796
Chapter 24 Internet Applications—Multimedia 799
24.1
Audio and Video Compression 800
24.2
Real-Time Traffic 808
24.3
Voice Over IP and Multimedia Support—SIP 811
24.4
Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) 820
24.5
Recommended Reading and Web Sites 831
24.6
Key Terms, Review Questions, and Problems 832
773
xii
CONTENTS
APPENDICES 835
Appendix A Fourier Analysis 835
A.1
Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals 836
A.2
Fourier Transform Representation of Aperiodic Signals 837
A.3
Recommended Reading 840
Appendix B Projects for Teaching Data and Computer Communications
B.1
Practical Exercises 842
B.2
Sockets Projects 843
B.3
Ethereal Projects 843
B.4
Simulation and Modeling Projects 844
B.5
Performance Modeling 844
B.6
Research Projects 845
B.7
Reading/Report Assignments 845
B.8
Writing Assignments 845
B.9
Discussion Topics 846
References
847
Index 858
ONLINE APPENDICES
WilliamStallings.com/DCC
Appendix C Sockets: A Programmer’s Introduction
C.1
Versions of Sockets
C.2
Sockets, Socket Descriptors, Ports, and Connections
C.3
The Client/Server Model of Communication
C.4
Sockets Elements
C.5
Stream and Datagram Sockets
C.6
Run-Time Program Control
C.7
Remote Execution of a Windows Console Application
Appendix D Standards Organizations
D.1
The Importance of Standards
D.2
Standards and Regulation
D.3
Standards-Setting Organizations
Appendix E
The International Reference Alphabet
Appendix F
Proof of the Sampling Theorem
Appendix G Physical-Layer Interfacing
G.1
V.24/EIA-232-F
G.2
ISDN Physical Interface
Appendix H The OSI Model
H.1
The Model
H.2
The OSI Layers
841
CONTENTS
Appendix I Queuing Effects
I.1
Queuing Models
I.2
Queuing Results
Appendix J Orthogonality, Correlation, and Autocorrelation
J.1
Correlation and Autocorrelation
J.2
Orthogonal Codes
Appendix K The TCP/IP Checksum
K.1
Ones-Complement Addition
K.2
Use in TCP and IP
Appendix L
TCP/IP Example
Appendix M Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Uniform Resource
Identifiers (URIs)
M.1
Uniform Resource Locator
M.2
Uniform Resource Identifier
M.3
To Learn More
Appendix N
Glossary
Augmented Backus-Naur Form
xiii
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PREFACE
Begin at the beginning and go on till you come to the end; then stop.
—Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll
OBJECTIVES
This book attempts to provide a unified overview of the broad field of data and computer communications. The organization of the book reflects an attempt to break this massive subject
into comprehensible parts and to build, piece by piece, a survey of the state of the art.The book
emphasizes basic principles and topics of fundamental importance concerning the technology
and architecture of this field and provides a detailed discussion of leading-edge topics.
The following basic themes serve to unify the discussion:
• Principles: Although the scope of this book is broad, there are a number of
basic principles that appear repeatedly as themes and that unify this field.
Examples are multiplexing, flow control, and error control. The book highlights
these principles and contrasts their application in specific areas of technology.
• Design approaches: The book examines alternative approaches to meeting
specific communication requirements.
• Standards: Standards have come to assume an increasingly important, indeed
dominant, role in this field. An understanding of the current status and future
direction of technology requires a comprehensive discussion of the related
standards.
INTENDED AUDIENCE
The book is intended for both an academic and a professional audience. For the professional
interested in this field, the book serves as a basic reference volume and is suitable for self-study.
As a textbook, it can be used for a one-semester or two-semester course. It covers the material
in Networking (NET), a core area in the Information Technology body of knowledge, which
is part of the Draft ACM/IEEE/AIS Computing Curricula 2005. The book also covers the
material in Computer Networks (CE-NWK), a core area in Computer Engineering 2004
Curriculum Guidelines from the ACM/IEEE Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula.
PLAN OF THE TEXT
The book is divided into six parts (see Chapter 0):
• Overview
• Data Communications
• Wide Area Networks
xv
xvi
PREFACE
• Local Area Networks
• Internet and Transport Protocols
• Internet Applications
In addition, the book includes an extensive glossary, a list of frequently used acronyms,
and a bibliography. Each chapter includes problems and suggestions for further reading.
The chapters and parts of the book are sufficiently modular to provide a great deal of flexibility in the design of courses. See Chapter 0 for a number of detailed suggestions for both
top-down and bottom-up course strategies.
INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPORT MATERIALS
To support instructors, the following materials are provided:
• Solutions Manual: Solutions to all end-of-chapter Review Questions and
Problems.
• PowerPoint Slides: A set of slides covering all chapters, suitable for use in
lecturing.
• PDF files: Reproductions of all figures and tables from the book.
• Projects Manual: Suggested project assignments for all of the project categories listed below.
Instructors may contact their Pearson Education or Prentice Hall representative for
access to these materials.
In addition, the book’s Web site supports instructors with:
• Links to Webs sites for other courses being taught using this book
• Sign up information for an Internet mailing list for instructors
INTERNET SERVICES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS
There is a Web site for this book that provides support for students and instructors.
The site includes links to other relevant sites, transparency masters of figures in the book,
and sign-up information for the book’s Internet mailing list. The Web page is at
WilliamStallings.com/DCC/DCC8e.html; see the section, Web Site for Data and Computer
Communications, preceding the Table of Contents, for more information. An Internet mailing list has been set up so that instructors using this book can exchange information, suggestions, and questions with each other and with the author. As soon as typos or other errors
are discovered, an errata list for this book will be available at WilliamStallings.com.
PROJECTS AND OTHER STUDENT EXERCISES
For many instructors, an important component of a data communications or networking
course is a project or set of projects by which the student gets hands-on experience to reinforce concepts from the text. This book provides an unparalleled degree of support for
including a projects component in the course. The instructor’s supplement not only includes
guidance on how to assign and structure the projects but also includes a set of User’s
PREFACE
xvii
Manuals for various project types plus specific assignments, all written especially for this
book. Instructors can assign work in the following areas:
• Practical exercises: Using network commands, the student gains experience in
network connectivity.
• Sockets programming projects: The book is supported by a detailed description of Sockets available at the book’s Web site. The Instructors supplement
includes a set of programming projects. Sockets programming is an “easy”
topic and one that can result in very satisfying hands-on projects for students.
• Ethereal projects: Ethereal is a protocol analyzer that enables students to
study the behavior of protocols.
• Simulation projects: The student can use the simulation package cnet to
analyze network behavior.
• Performance modeling projects: Two performance modeling techniques are
provided a tools package and OPNET.
• Research projects: The instructor’s supplement includes a list …
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