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“Consumers tend to have stereotypes about specific countries and specific products that have been formed by experience, hearsay, myth, and limited information”. This is a statement from your text book. Take a stand either agreeing with the statement or disagreeing. Give your rationale for your position (choose only one position, do not agree with both). Give relevant examples from international marketing to support your argument.Note: Its a Discussion Board 250 words make it clear Book name :Cateora, P. R., Graham, J.,& Gilly, M. (2016). International marketing (17th ed.). New York: Mc-Graw-Hill Education.
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International Marketing
15th edition
Philip R. Cateora, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. Graham
Maintaining Quality
13
• Damage in the distribution chain
– Russian chocolate
• Quality is essential for success in today’s
competitive global market
• The decision to standardize or adapt a product is
crucial in delivering quality (small perfume sizes,
tins instead of cardboard packaging)
• Changes mandated by local standards is the
reason for adaption and is called product
homologation.
Roy Philip
2
Green Marketing
and Product Development
13
• Green marketing concerns the environmental
consequences of a variety of marketing activities
• Critical issues affecting product development
– Control of the packaging component of solid
waste
– Consumer demand for environmentally friendly
products
• European Commission guidelines for ecolabeling
in 1992 (cradle to grave) Hoover success
• Laws to control solid waste in Europe. Up to 65%
Roy Philip
3
Innovative Products
and Adaptation
13
• Determining the degree of newness as perceived
by the intended market
• Diffusion (process by which an innovation
spreads)
• Established patterns of consumption and
behavior (sponge cake)
• Foreign marketing goal
– Gaining the largest number of consumers in the
market
• In the shortest span of time
– Probable rate of acceptance
Roy Philip
4
Diffusion of Innovations
13
• Crucial elements in the diffusion of new ideas




An innovation
Which is communicated through certain channels
Over time
Among the members of a social system
• The element of time – needs to be shortest
• Variables affecting the rate of diffusion of an object
– Degree of perceived newness
– Perceived attributes of the innovation
– Method used to communicate the idea
Roy Philip
5
Five Characteristics
of an Innovation





13
Relative advantage
Compatibility
Complexity
Trialability
Observability
Roy Philip
6
Product Component Model
13
Exhibit 13.1
Roy Philip
7
Marketing Consumer
Services Globally
13
• More than half of Fortune 500 companies are
primarily service providers
• Consumer services characteristics




Intangibility
Inseparability
Heterogeneity
Perishability
• A service can be marketed
– As an industrial (business-to-business)
– A consumer service
Roy Philip
8
Services Opportunities
in Global Markets








13
Tourism
Transportation
Financial services
Education
Communications
Entertainment
Information
Health care
Roy Philip
9
Barriers to Entering Global 13
Markets for Consumer Services
• Four kinds of barriers face consumer service
marketers:




Protectionism
Restrictions on transborder data flows
Protection of intellectual property
Cultural barriers and adaptation
Roy Philip
10
Brands in
International Markets
13
• A global brand is the worldwide use of a name,
term, sign, symbol, design, or combination
– Intended to identify goods or services of one
seller
– To differentiate them from those of competitors
• Importance is unquestionable
• Most valuable company resource
Roy Philip
11
Global Brands
13
• The Internet and other technologies accelerate
the pace of the globalization of brands
• Ideally gives the company a uniform worldwide
image
• Balance
• Ability to translate
Roy Philip
12
Country-of-Origin Effects
and Global Brands (1 of 2)
13
• Country-of-Origin effect
– Influences that the country of manufacture,
assembly, or design
• Has on a consumer’s positive or negative
perception of a product
• Consumers have broad but somewhat vague
stereotypes about specific countries and specific
product categories that they judge “best”
• Ethnocentrism
Roy Philip
13
Country-of-Origin Effects
and Global Brands (2 of 2)
13
• Countries are stereotyped
– On the basis of whether they are industrialized
– In the process of industrializing
– In process of developing
• Technical products
– Perception of one manufactured in a lessdeveloped or newly industrializing country less
positive
• Fads often surround product from particular
countries or regions
Roy Philip
14

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