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5 question, you have to write a short paragraph for each question.use easy vocabulary i need the assignment in 9 hours —What is media literacy and what do we mean by critical media literacy? Explain the definition of power and then explain in 5 sentences or less your understanding of the power struggle.Watch Democracy Now Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday mornings, select ONE story per EACH day and write a summary of those stories using or applying 3 concepts or examples given in class. In other words, use 3 different concepts or examples from class to offer your interpretation of 3 different stories covered by DN. Stories means full segments NOT news covered only in their Headlines. It is ONE CONCEPT/EXAMPLE per ONE STORY and none should repeat. In your own words explain our definition of media and then use an example from your own media diet to explain that definition or how you see that definition playing out in that particular media. Using any particular portion of your media diet map out its ownership and explain what impact that ownership may have on the final product. Extra credit (10 points) will be given to those who provide a TheyRule.net map of that media’s corporate board interlocks.
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World
Dr. Jared A. Ball
imixwhatilike.org / @imixwhatilike
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What Is [Critical] Media Literacy?
“Critical media literacy is defined originally by Douglas Kellner and Share in ‘Critical
Media Literacy is Not an Option’, as ‘an educational response that expands the notion
of literacy to include different forms of mass communication, popular culture, and new
technologies. It deepens the potential of literacy education to critically analyze
relationships between media and audiences, information, and power. Along with this
mainstream analysis, alternative media production empowers students to create their
own messages that can challenge media texts and narratives.’ Critical media literacy
aims to analyze and understand the power structures that lay within the media and
understand the underpinnings of the politics that go into representation of gender, race,
class and sexuality in the media. This approach is different than “media literacy”
because it critically works to understand that there are dominant power
structures that audiences work to make meaning between the dominant,
oppositional and negotiated readings of media.”
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
3
Representation & the Media: Featuring Stuart Hall
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
4
Some Basic/Core/Key Concepts – Course Lexicon
Media are best understood as ideology carried
technologically to mass and dispersed audiences. Media are not to
be understood (as is often the case) as the “organized technologies”
through which they are disseminated (television, radio, internet, film,
etc.).
Ideology are an individual’s or society’s “governing ideas”and
determine norms, values and how we interpret and understand our
relationship to our environment.
Corporation – The dominant societal institution and also a “legal
fiction” (Robert Reich) which allows the elite to rule in anonymity.
Slavoj Žižek explains ideology
with help from They Live (1988)
The dominant institution of our time is
the corporation. Corporations own and control
the content of nearly all mainstream media
operations (internet, film, radio, television, etc.)
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
5
Some Basic/Core/Key Concepts – Course Lexicon
Gatekeeping (communication) Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for
dissemination, whether for publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other mode of
communication.
Agenda-setting theory describes the “ability [of the news media] to influence the salience of topics on
the public agenda.” That is, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently, the audience will
regard the issue as more important. While dominant media may not be able to tell each individual what
to think they can largely manage what individuals in a given society think about.
Narrowcasting has traditionally been understood as the dissemination of information (usually via Internet, radio, newspaper,
or television) to a narrow audience; not to the broader public at-large. Also called niche marketing or target marketing,
narrowcasting involves aiming media messages at specific segments of the public defined by values, preferences,
demographic attributes, and/or subscription.
The concept of framing is related to the agenda-setting tradition but expands the research by focusing on the essence
of the issues at hand rather than on a particular topic. The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention
on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that allow the creating and
sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via
virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social
media services currently available introduces challenges of definition. However,
there are some common features
Net Neutrality Explained In One Minute!
Net Neutrality – the principle that Internet service providers should enable
access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and
without favoring or blocking particular products or websites.
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
6
Some Basic/Core/Key Concepts – Course Lexicon
Media power is often derived not from profits they may generate for
owners but in their ability to define the world for their audiences. For,
as defined by Dr. Huey P. Newton, power “is the ability to define
phenomena and make it act in a desired manner.”
Minority – A term used to describe the majority of the
world. Most of the world are women, working people and
the poor, and are so-called “people of color” (see Sylvia
Wynter) and, therefore, the only true minority in the world
are elite, White, men.
Bobby Seale
Co-founder with Newton of The Black Panther Party
“The Greeks separated the world into Greeks and
‘barbarians.’ You think of what happened. We happily
call ourselves ‘people of color . . .’ … Do you realize
what is happening? You have ‘PEOPLE,’ who are the
‘REAL’ humans, and then ‘PEOPLE OF COLOR,’ who
are the ‘OTHERS.’ [Laughter] But we placidly and
happily accept this conception. We don’t say, ‘how
was it that one human hereditary variant caught up in
the ice and snow, and so on and so forth and
therefore repressing the production of melanin it
becomes white and then takes over the world and
makes itself into the biological norm of being!’” Sylvia Wynter
Sylvia Wynter
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Diverse World v. Diversity of Worldview
The diversity of the world’s population is not often matched by the dominant perspectives
carried in media targeting them. Previous reference to narrowcasting is important in that
it speaks more to how a tiny minority can fashion various media so as to appeal to a more
varied audience (eg: ESPN targeting younger male sports fans and Lifetime which targets
older women but both are Disney properties.)
As bell hooks has described, media help create an environment
steeped in the race, class, gender positioning of those
who actually constitute the only true minority population (elite,
White, men) as those determining the “minority” status of
the rest. This, she argues, necessitates that audiences becomes
“enlightened witnesses” to media in order that they be able
to interpret the tripartite ideological production and (re)presentation
of “White supremacy, capitalism and patriarchy.”
bell hooks on white supremacy capitalism and patriarchy
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Toni Morrison responds
similarly to the question of what
is “centered,” or “normalized”
and how Blackness is made
“other.”
What is diversity? Diverse from what?
Diverse in perspective
or just in audience? As Les McCann once
asked,“Compared to What?”
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Assessing the Ideological Foundation and Political
Function of U.S. Mass Media
Karl Marx: Commodity as the Original Sin
of Capitalism
Greg Tate: African People as the Original
Commodity of the U.S.
John Downing/Charles Husband: Racism
as the Conceptual Original Sin of the U.S.
Marimba Ani/Amos Wilson: Destruction of
African Consciousness as a Political
Necessity
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Basic Media Theory
Theories are general principles that explain and predict behavior. – governing ideas, worldview, consciousness
Economics and profit motive – economics studies the forces that allocate resources to satisfy competing needs
while profit motive refers to the idea that media ownership and production are largely about the accumulation of
more money (profit).
Critical Studies – Critical scholars have alternative theories for the relationship of media
industries, content, and society. They examine the connection between media and
society from political- economic, feminist, ethnic, and media criticism perspectives.
These perspectives focus on the need for media literacy and a critical understanding of
media structure and its power, as well as the meaning of its content. That means that we
should not just accept the media at face value, as though it were a natural phenomenon
like the weather. We should try instead to understand the causes underlying media
change and to be skeptical about the motives of the media industry. In contrast to the
SMCR model previously introduced the critical studies approach emphasizes the
feedback link as an active process in which the human receiver “ decodes” the
messages that the human source encodes.
Political Economy – Media literacy means learning to think critically
about the role of media in society. Critical studies examines the overall
impact of media. Political economy analyzes patterns of class domination
and economic power.
Hegemony is the use of media to create a consensus
around certain ideas, so that they come to be
accepted as common sense.
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media & Society
Media do not exist in a vacuum. There is a
context in which media production occurs.
Some describe this context in terms of
imperialism, colonialism, White supremacy or
racism, patriarchy or heteronormativity. As an
introduction we are here concerned most with
the idea that, whatever definitions suit it best,
there is a power struggle in which groups are
in competition with one another (consciously or
otherwise) for both material resources, as well
as, immaterial – that is, in the realm of ideology
and ideas.
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
12
Some Basic/Core/Key Concepts – Course Lexicon
Media are best understood as ideology carried
technologically to mass and dispersed audiences. Media are not to
be understood (as is often the case) as the “organized technologies”
through which they are disseminated (television, radio, internet, film,
etc.).
Ideology are an individual’s or society’s “governing ideas”and
determine norms, values and how we interpret and understand our
relationship to our environment.
Corporation – The dominant societal institution and also a “legal
fiction” (Robert Reich) which allows the elite to rule in anonymity.
The dominant institution of our time is
the corporation. Corporations own and control
the content of nearly all mainstream media
operations (internet, film, radio, television, etc.)
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
13
Slavoj Žižek explains ideology
with help from They Live (1988)
The Media Deals of 2016 and
What Drove Them
Media Ownership Landscape
Interlocking Boards of Directors
This is one way in which oligopoly works where
members of corporate boards of directors sit on one
or another board creating “interlocks” of shared
economic, political and social interests.
Try it out! Go to TheyRule.net and map out the
interconnected realities of the corporate world!
from Renee Klahr
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Billionaire Media Ownership
Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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Media Literacy in a Diverse World / Dr. Jared A. Ball / @imixwhatilike
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