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Please read the article I attached below, than answer the following questions: The article I attached below is one of my most recent articles from my research proposal literature review that uses a statistical analysis. Define which statistic was calculated, and why you believe it was the best choice for the question being asked of the data. Describe the article’s author(s) treat validity and reliability (internal and external) issues. Explain specifically why you believe this is appropriate, or what ‘uncertainty’s’ arise in your analysis. Did the author(s) collect an adequate number of samples (enrollment) to assure effective ‘power’ for the study? If not, why not?Develop a narrative, referenced (outside of text) statement about what measures you could use in your study. Prepare this as a portion of your final proposalCALCULATE what sample size that would be required to provide adequate POWER for your proposals chosen level of significance using your selected statistical methodImportant notes: 1- My research question is: What preventive methods should Saudi use to prevent the occurrence of floods in the future? my targeted population is only the three cities Makkah, Jedda, and Ryadh, and I also attached the literature review of my topic of research. 2- Use APA format for citation 3- Please carefully read the questions, and comprehensively answer them. 4- its all about the article I attached below, which is (Disaster-Preparedness-and-Management-in-Saudi-Arabia-An-Empirical-Investigation)
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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
Vol:7, No:12, 2013
Disaster Preparedness and Management in Saudi
Arabia: An Empirical Investigation
Shougi Suliman Abosuliman, Arun Kumar, Firoz Alam
International Science Index, Economics and Management Engineering Vol:7, No:12, 2013 waset.org/Publication/9997611
Abstract—Disaster preparedness is a key success factor for any
systems while it is facing the increasing disaster challenges
[2].
effective disaster management practices. This paper evaluates the
disaster preparedness and management in Saudi Arabia using an
empirical investigation approach. It presents the results of the survey
conducted by interviewing representatives of the Saudi decisionmakers and administrators responsible for disaster control in Jeddah
before, during and after flooding in 2009 and 2010. First,
demographics of the respondents are presented, followed by
quantitative analysis of their views and experiences regarding the
Kingdom’s readiness before and after each flood. This is shown as a
series of dependent and independent variables. Following this is a list
of respondents’ priorities for disaster preparation in the Kingdom.
Keywords—Disaster response
effective service delivery.
policy,
crisis
management,
I. BACKGROUND
O
VER the past half-century, as the international social
environment was relatively peaceful, human society,
economy and technology have developed rapidly. However,
the rapid development has created numerous environmental
problems such as global warming and geological damages due
to mining and oil extraction and so on. Despite the absence of
direct evidence that the recent years’ natural disasters were
created by human activities, the number of natural disasters
has increased and become more destructive when compared to
historical events. This situation is more obvious in Asia (Fig.
1) due to presence of large number of developing countries
with dense population. People can use technology to predict
some of the disasters, for instance the meteorological
forecasting for rainstorm and hurricanes; however, prediction
and prevention can only play a limited role in reducing losses
and are powerless when facing unpredictable sudden events,
such as flash floods and earthquake which is the focus of this
research. In order to save lives and property as much as we
can, ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of relief
operations are vital after natural disasters. Thus, emergency /
humanitarian logistics, which is the extended, systematized
and specialized branch of logistics and supply chain
management, is now gaining more and more attention from
academia and the public [1]. As a disaster-prone country,
when compared with other countries in the region, Saudi
Arabia was slow to begin developing emergency logistics
Shougi Suliman Abosuliman and Arun Kumar are with the School of
Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng., RMIT University,
Melbourne,
VIC3000,
Australia
(phone:+61399256226;
e-mail:
s3319062@student.rmit.edu.au, a.kumar@rmit.edu.au).
Firoz Alamis with the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and
Manufacturing Eng., RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC3000, Australia
(phone: +61 3 9925 4328; e-mail: a.kumar@rmit.edu.au).
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 7(12) 2013
Fig. 1 Type of number of disasters in Asia
Saudi Arabia has been witnessing several manmade
disasters such as terrorist attacks; however, less attention is
paid to natural disasters, despite their frequent occurrence and
the devastation they caused on people lives and property.
Floods are the most frequently encountered disasters and have
been the cause of 7 out of the 10 major disasters in Saudi
Arabia between 1900 and 2010 as shown in Table I [3]. Flood
disrupts the normal life patterns of individuals, families as
well as the nation which are exposed to great material and
personal losses. Jeddah city which is located on the Red Sea
on the west coast of Saudi Arabia and has dry climate with
little rainfall occurring only in winter, was flooded after a
heavy rain on 25 November 2009 and caused the worst flood
disaster in the history of Saudi Arabia. Situated on a plain
beneath the 800m escarpment of the Jabal al-Hejaz in Saudi
Arabia, as the desert city extends across numerous wadis off
the escarpment, it is prone to flooding after exceptional
storms; however at twice the city’s yearly average, 90mm of
rain fell in just four hours on that day. By noon, torrents struck
many parts of the city, especially the poorer southern
neighborhoods where thousands of vehicles were caught in a
traffic jam trying to escape [4], [5]. The death toll was 163,
with damage to 8,000 homes, over 7,000 vehicles and
economic loss of US$900. A number of children and women
were also rescued and airlifted by helicopters in residential
buildings. The lack of previous experience of dealing with
flood crisis as well as the absence of the natural disaster plans
made the situation difficult. The consequences of the floods
drew criticism for wastewater management, flood mitigation
and emergency response from the various responsible Saudi
government organizations [6]. Saudi Arabia is yet to use the
advancement of technologies to develop an efficient approach
to forecast flash flood and warnings. It is still struggling to
proactively manage current risks and vulnerabilities, and
preparing for potential future disasters. Development of
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scholar.waset.org/1307-6892/9997611
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
Vol:7, No:12, 2013
International Science Index, Economics and Management Engineering Vol:7, No:12, 2013 waset.org/Publication/9997611
models and provision of accurate information is crucial for
local authorities in reducing vulnerability of people and flood
prone areas from flash flood. The government bears the
responsibility for implementing and organizing rescue
operations, evacuation and providing assistance in the event of
any disaster, and they should be able to take actions and
policies to minimize losses [7].
TABLE I
MAJOR DISASTERS IN SAUDI ARABIA BETWEEN 1941 AND 2011
Type of disaster
Death
Injured
Year
Kabaa flash floods
N.A.
N.A.
1941
Flash Flood
20
1,000
1964
Fire during Hajj
200
N.A.
1975
Occupation of Mosque in Makah
250
600
1979
Floods in Northwest of Kingdom
32
5,000
1985
Pilgrims Stampede inside tunnel
1,426
N.A.
1990
Pilgrims Stampede inside tunnel
270
N.A.
1994
Yanbu and Asir floods
26
N.A.
1997
Fire during Hajj
343
1555
1997
Epidemic
179
1700
2000/01
Makah floods
31
N.A.
2002
Medina flood
29
43
2005
Jeddah flood
163
11,640
2009
Jeddah flood
10
5,000
2011
This study evaluates the disaster preparedness and
management in Saudi Arabia using an empirical investigation
approach. A questionnaire has been prepared and survey
conducted with top authorities involved in disaster and
emergency management sector. The findings have made a
number of important managerial and academic implications.
These findings provide valuable guidance for identifying the
mechanisms to improve the disaster preparedness of Saudi
government organizations.
scale, 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor). The dependent variables were:
11-Response time (3 questions), 12-Duration of response (3
questions), 13-Adequate emergency teams (3 questions), 14Cost efficiency (3 questions). The independent variables were:
15-Funding (3 questions), 16-Human resources (3 questions)
17-Training (3 questions), 18-Coordination between
responsible organizations (4 questions). Other questions: 19
Opportunities for improvement (19 questions).
III. DATA COLLECTION
There were 40 possible disaster management respondents in
various agencies and organizations in Jeddah and after initial
contact to establish researcher’s credentials, the purpose and
ethics of the study, these questions were sent to a central
contact point in each organization for responses by an
organizational representative. Thus, the research comprised a
population of public entities, rather than a sample of
respondents from each of the relevant organizations. This was
considered acceptable, as the questions concerned public
policy rather than respondents’ views [8]. Of the 40 written
surveys delivered in August 2012, 27 (79%) completed
surveys were returned for analysis by October, 2012.
IV. DEMOGRAPHICS
This section includes the ages, qualifications, and work
experiences of the participants. The age profile is shown at
Table II.
TABLE II
AGE PROFILE OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS
Age level (years)
Frequency and percentage
< 30 2 (6%) 30-40 3 (10%) 41-50 20 (68%) 51>
2 (6%)
Not shown
3 (10%)
Total
30 (100%)
II. METHODOLOGY
The questionnaire was constructed in several sections to
obtain information on the emergency response framework, to
gather data on the organizational characteristics, and to
investigate the views of the representatives of those
organizations on the adequacy of the various entities’
responses to the 2009 and 2010 Jeddah floods. The survey
commenced with respondents’ demographic details and
position in the organization. The second part of the
questionnaire, which concerned only the information sought
allowed for a range of factual responses, from open or nondirected, to closed, yes/no answers. It was constructed by
numbered sections as follows:
1-Organisation profile (5 questions), 2-Risk assessments (6
questions), 3-Policy and planning (4 questions), 4-Training (4
questions), 5- Government structures (15 questions), 6-Nongovernment and Red Crescent input (12 questions), 7-Disaster
relief resources (17 questions), 8-Funding (6 questions), 9International assistance (10 questions), 10-Strengths and
weaknesses of current plan (7 questions). The third part of the
questionnaire used a series of independent and dependent
variables regarding respondents’ views of factors regarding
emergency response. These were based on a 5-point Likert
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 7(12) 2013
Given the youthful profile of the Kingdom, it was surprising
that 20 of the 30 respondents (68%) were aged from 40 to 49
years and this was reflected in the participants’ years of
experience, 16-20 years (Table III). Arguably, this is an
indication that the offices were established during that period
(1990s), as public servants have their jobs for life.
The following Table IV shows that all the respondents were
university graduates and that a majority (47%) had Master’s
degrees. Further, seven (23%) of the respondents had further
qualifications, either postgraduate studies in disaster
management or higher degrees.
TABLE III
WORK EXPERIENCE OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS
Years of work experience
Frequency and percentage
<10 2 (7%) 11-15 4 (13%) 16-20 19 (63%) >21
2 (7%)
Not shown
3 (10%)
Total
30 (100%)
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scholar.waset.org/1307-6892/9997611
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
Vol:7, No:12, 2013
International Science Index, Economics and Management Engineering Vol:7, No:12, 2013 waset.org/Publication/9997611
TABLE IV
QUALIFICATIONS OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS
Qualifications
Frequency and percentage
Secondary school
0 (0%)
Bachelor’s degree
6 (20%)
Master’s
14 (47%)
Other qualifications
7 (23%)
Not shown
3 (10%)
Total
30 (100%)
The results are presented at Table VI.
Year
2009
The Methodology section above outlined the nature of the
questions. This section presents the responses of the questions
using a 5-point Likert scale of 1= poor, 2 = fair, 3 = good, 4 =
very good, and 5 = excellent. The results are compared and
discussed in next section.
V. QUALITY OF RESPONSE (DEPENDENT VARIABLES)
These questions asked for the participant’s response in
relation to the lead disaster response agency for the Kingdom,
the Civil Defense Organization. Each question required a
response for years 2009 and 2010. The results are presented in
Table V.
TABLE V
QUALITY OF RESPONSE OF CIVIL DEFENSE ORGANIZATION
W. A.
Year
Item
S.D.
Ranking
n=30
Response time
2.778
1.500
1
Efficiency
2.776
1.066
2
2009
Resources
1.949
1.000
4
Cost structure
1.998
1.333
3
Response time
2.001
1.100
3
Efficiency
2.112
1.033
1
2010
Resources
1.991
1.333
4
Cost structure
2.111
1.666
2
2009
2.375
1.224
2010
2.530
1.283
Table V shows four dependent variables depicting the study
participants’ views regarding the quality of the item relating to
emergency responses from Civil Defence organization to the
Jeddah floods in 2009 and 2010. The participants were less
satisfied with these responses for the 2009 the weighted
average at 2.375 and standard deviation 1.224, than the
comparable 2010 weighted average, 2.530, and S.D. of 1.283.
Other results for 2009 flood disaster showed that the variable
response time was of primary interest to the participants (W.A.
2.778, S.D. 1.500), followed by efficiency (W.A. 2.776, S.D.
1.066), cost structure (W.A. 1.998, S.D. 1.333), and resources
available, (W.A. 1.949, S.D. 1.000). The 2010 results, on the
other hand, ranked variables efficiency (W.A. 2.112,
S.D.1.0333), cost structure (W.A. 2.111, S.D. 1.666),
response time (W.A. 2.001, S.D. 1.100) and then resources
available (W.A. 1.991, S.D. 1.333) as the least important
factor. The next organization examined was the Red Crescent.
It is the lead agency in administering medical aid for the
Kingdom, working with the ambulance services and the
hospitals. Each of these items asked for the participant’s views
on the quality of Red Crescent’s response for 2009 and 2010.
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 7(12) 2013
2010
2009
2010
TABLE VI
QUALITY OF RESPONSE OF RED CRESCENT
W.A.
Item
S.D.
n=30
Response time
2.500
1.581
Efficiency
1.889
1.666
Resources
1.904
1.833
Cost structure
2.000
1.003
Response time
3.166
0.888
Efficiency
3.500
0.667
Resources
2.833
1.007
Cost structure
2.333
1.223
1.999
1.594
2.958
0.946
Ranking
1
4
3
2
2
1
3
4
Table VI shows the analysis of participants’ views of the
Red Crescent and the quality of its response to the flood
events of 2009 and 2010. The results show that participants
were less satisfied with these responses for the 2009 flood,
with the W.A. at 1.999 and S.D. 1.564, than the comparable
2010 W.A., 2.985, and S.D. 0.946. Other results for 2009
flood disaster show that the variable response time was ranked
of interest (W.A. 2.500, S.D. 1.581); followed by cost
structure (W.A. 2.000, S.D. 1.003), resources available (W.A.
1.903, S.D. 1.333); and of less interest, efficiency (W.A. 1.889,
S.D. 1.666). For the 2010 flood event, the rankings were
efficiency (W.A. 3.500, S.D. 0.667), followed by response
time (W.A. 3.166, S.D. 0.888) resources available (W.A.
2.833, S.D. 1.007); and finally cost structure (W.A. 2.333,
S.D. 1.223).
Local and national emergency response groups provide
immediate relief in the event of an emergency in their
neighborhoods. The participants were asked for their views on
the ad hoc groups’ responses in 2009 and again in 2010 (Table
VII). Table VII depicts the respondents’ views on the
standards for local response groups to the Jeddah floods in
2009 and 2010. The participants were less satisfied with these
responses for the 2009 event (W.A. 1.707, S.D. 1.553)
compared to 2010 (W.A. 3.216, S.D. 1.219). Ranked results
for the 2009 event show that the variable cost structure was of
statistical interest (W.A. 2.168, S.D. 1.366); followed by
resources available (W.A. 1.966, S.D. 1.402), response time
(W.A. 1.833, S.D. 1.353), and efficiency (W.A. 1.666, S.D.
1.290). Other results for the 2010 flood disaster show that
response time ranked first (W.A. 3.833, S.D. 0.957), then
resources available (W.A. 3.300, S.D. 1.002) efficiency
(W.A.3.166, S.D. 1.033) and last, cost structure (W.A. 2.566,
S.D. 1.887).
3258
scholar.waset.org/1307-6892/9997611
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering
Vol:7, No:12, 2013
International Science Index, Economics and Management Engineering Vol:7, No:12, 2013 waset.org/Publication/9997611
TABLE VII
QUALITY OF RESPONSE OF LOCAL EMERGENCY GROUPS
W.A.
Year
Item
S.D.
Ranking
n=30
Response time
1.833
1.353
3
Efficiency
1.666
1.290
4
2009
Resources
1.966
1.402
2
Cost structure
2.168
1.366
1
Response time
3.833
0.957
1
Efficiency
3.166
1.033
3
2010
Resources
3.300
1.002
2
Cost structure
2.566
1.887
4
2009
1.707
1.553
2010
3.216
1.219
0.201). Funding in the disaster planning phase, as noted, was
last (W.A. 2.000, S.D. 1.433).
TABLE IX
PREPARATION FOR DISASTER RESPONSE BY RED CRESCENT
W.A.
Year
Item
S.D.
Ranking
n=30
Funding
2.000
1.414
4
People
4.000
0.998
3
2009
Training
5.000
0.301
2
Coordination
5.000
0.112
1
Funding
2.000
1.512
4
People
5.000
0.222
2
2010
Training
5.000
0.189
1
Coordination
5.000
0.300
3
2009
4.000
0.706
2010
4.250
0.555
VI. QUALITY PREPARATION (INDEPENDENT VARIABLES)
The independent variables, those factors available to
address disaster response before the event, were funding,
people, training and coordination. These were questions for
the study participants to respond in regards of the two lead
organizations, the Civil Defense Organization and the Red
Crescent, and also ad hoc emergency response groups. These
questions were answered using a 5-point Likert scale of 1=
poor, 2 = fair, 3 = good, 4 = very good, and 5 = excellent. The
results are compared and discussed in next section.
The first table in this section, Table VIII, shows analysis of
participants’ responses to items critical to the country’s
preparation to respond to a crisis, and this is for the lead
agency, Civil Defense Organization.
TABLE VIII
PREPARATION FOR DISASTER RESPONSE BY CIVIL DEFENSE ORGANIZATION
W.A.
Year
Item
S.D.
Ranking
n=30
Funding
2.000
1.445
4
People
4.000
0.305
3
2009
Training
5.000
0.101
1
Coordination
5.000
0.112
2
Funding
2.000
1.433
4
People
5.000
0.110
1
2010
Training
5.000
0.117
2
Coordination
5.000
0.201
3
2009
4.000
0.490
2010
4.250
0.436
Again there are four variables for the participants’ response
for this section of the analysis on the lead agency, Civil
Defence Organisation, and again the respondents were found
to be mildly less satisfied with preparations for the 2009 flood
event (W.A. 4.000, S.D. 0.490) than 2010 (W.A. 4.250, S.D.
0.436), with more people being available in 2010. Other
results for the 2009 flood disaster preparation show that the
variables training (5.000, S.D. 0.101) and coordination (W.A.
5.000, S.D. 0.112) as of significance, followed in ranking by
people availability (W.A. 4.000, S.D. 0.305), and last, funding
(W.A. 2.000, S.D. 1.445). Analysis of participants’ views on
preparations for 2010, with the exception of funding, were
fairly uniform: people (W.A. 5.000, S.D. 0.110), training
(W.A. 5.000, S.D. 0.117), and coordination (W.A. 5.000, S.D.
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 7(12) 2013
As Table IX shows, there are four variables analyzed to
report study participants’ views regarding emergency response
by Red Crescent to the Jeddah floods in 2009 and 2010. The
participants were somewhat less satisfied with Red Crescent’s
preparations before the 2009 floods (W.A. 4.000, S.D. 0.706)
than compared to preparations for 2010 (W.A. 4.250, S.D.
0.555). Rankings for preparation reported by the study
participants were similar for coordination (W.A. 5.000, S.D.
0.112) and training (W.A. 5.000, S.D. 0.301), followed by
people availability (W.A. 4.000, S.D. 0.998) and last, funding
(W.A. 2.000, S.D. 1.414). For preparation in the next year, the
study participants viewed training, people and coordination
similarly (W.A. 5.000; S.D.s. 0.189, 0.222 and 0.300
respectively). However, funding preparation gained their
disapproval yet again (W.A. 2.000, S.D. 1.512).
The last set of questions concerned local emergency
response groups and their prepara …
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