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1) Review the Power Point on Stress in the Power Point Folder 2) Complete the attached Stress Journal Friday- Sunday3) Link to watch the rest of the stress documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eYG0ZuTv5rs
insel14_ppt_ch02__8_.ppt.pptx

stress_project_revised.docx

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Chapter 2
STRESS: THE CONSTANT CHALLENGE
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
What Is Stress?

Commonly, stress refers to two different things:

Situations that trigger physical and emotional
reactions
▫ Stressors

The reactions themselves
▫ Stress response
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
2
Physical Responses to Stressors

Two systems in your body are responsible for
the physical response



Nervous system
Endocrine system
Rapid chemical reactions prime the body to act
quickly and appropriately
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3
The Nervous System

Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, nerves



Voluntary/involuntary
Handles very short-term (acute) stress
Autonomic nervous system

Parasympathetic division
▫ Relaxed state

Sympathetic division
▫ Stimulated state
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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4
The Endocrine System

Endocrine system: glands, tissues, and cells
that help control body functions



Releases hormones
Helps prepare the body to respond to stress
Handles both acute and chronic stress
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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5
The Two Systems Together

How do the nervous system and endocrine
system work together in an emergency?


Adrenal glands are activated, releasing cortisol and
epinephrine (adrenaline)
Trigger physiological changes (fight-or-flight)






Heart rate and respiration accelerate
Hearing and vision become more acute
Liver releases extra sugar into the bloodstream
Perspiration increases
Brain releases endorphins
Homeostasis
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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6
The Fight-or-Flight Reaction
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7
Emotional and Behavioral
Responses to Stressors


Responses to stress vary from person to
person
Cognitive appraisal of a potential stressor
influences how it is viewed


Highly individual; related to emotions
Two factors that can reduce the magnitude of
the stress response:


Successful prediction
Perception of control
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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8
Stress Level, Performance,
and Well-Being
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9
Emotional and Behavioral
Responses to Stressors

Behavioral responses to stress



Controlled by the somatic nervous system
Effective responses: talking, laughing,
exercise, and improved time management
Ineffective responses: overeating, hostility,
procrastination, frustration
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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10
Emotional and Behavioral
Responses to Stressors

Personality types




Type A: overcompetitive, controlling, impatient,
aggressive
Type B: relaxed, contemplative
Type C: anger suppression, hopelessness, despair
Type D: anxious, depressed, irritable
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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11
Emotional and Behavioral
Responses to Stressors


Hardiness
Resilience
▫ Nonreactive resilience
▫ Homeostatic resilience
▫ Positive growth resilience
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12
Emotional and Behavioral
Responses to Stressors

Other factors that influence emotional and
behavioral responses to stress



Cultural background
Gender
Experience
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13
The General Adaptation Syndrome

Predictable response pattern to all stressors



Eustress: brought on by a pleasant stressor
Distress: brought on by an unpleasant stressor
Three stages:

Alarm
▫ Shock phase followed by antishock phase



Resistance
Exhaustion
Allostatic load: long-term wear and tear of the
stress response
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14
The General Adaptation Syndrome
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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15
Symptoms of Excess Stress
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16
Psychoneuroimmunology

The study of the interactions among the
nervous, endocrine, and immune system





Cortisol
Lymphocytes
Epinephrine
Neuropeptides
Different types of stress affect immunity in
different ways


Acute stress
Chronic stress
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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17
Links between Stress and Specific
Conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Chronic high blood pressure
▫ Atherosclerosis



Heart attacks, strokes
Elevated cholesterol, inflammation
Psychological problems

Stressors can be anxiety-producing or depressing
▫ Panic attacks
▫ Eating disorders
▫ Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
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18
Other Health Problems


Altered functioning of the immune system
Headaches
Tension headaches
◼ Migraine headaches
◼ Cluster headaches





Digestive problems
Insomnia
Injuries
Menstrual irregularities, impotence, pregnancy
complications
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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19
Common Sources of Stress



Major life changes
Daily hassles
College stressors
Academic
◼ Interpersonal
◼ Time pressures
◼ Financial concerns
◼ Future worries

Social stressors






Real social networks
Virtual social
networks
Environmental
stressors
Internal stressors
Job-related stressors

Burnout
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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20
Managing Stress

Ways to control stress:




Shore up your support
system
Improve communication
skills
Develop healthy exercise,
eating, and sleeping habits
Learn to identify and
moderate individual
stressors
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21
Sleep

Sleep is important for controlling stress


Adults need 7 to 9 hours every night
How sleep works:
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
◼ Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep


Sleep and stress


Sleep deprivation
Sleep problems


Insomnia
Sleep apnea
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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22
Sleep Apnea
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23
Time Management
Set priorities
⬜ Schedule tasks for peak
efficiency
⬜ Set realistic goals and
write them down
⬜ Budget enough time
⬜ Break up long-term goals
⬜ Visualize achievement
CONTINUED…

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24
Time Management









Keep track of tasks you put off
Do least-favorite tasks first
Consolidate tasks
Identify quick transitional tasks
Delegate responsibility
Say no when necessary
Give yourself a break
Avoid “time sinks”
Just do it!
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved.
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25
Other Ways to Deal with Stress

Striving for spiritual wellness:


Spiritual wellness is associated with greater coping
skills/higher levels of overall wellness
Promotes:





Social support
Healthy habits
Positive attitude
Moments of relaxation
Confiding in yourself through writing:

Keep a diary
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26
Cognitive Techniques








Think and act constructively
Take control
Problem-solve
Modify your expectations
Stay positive
Practice affirmations
Cultivate your sense of humor
Focus on what’s important
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27
Relaxation Techniques

Use techniques to trigger the relaxation
response (opposite of fight-or-flight reaction)









Progressive relaxation
Visualization
Meditation
Mindfulness
Deep breathing
Yoga
Tai chi
Qigong
Biofeedback
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28
Counterproductive Coping
Strategies


Tobacco use
Use of alcohol and other drugs, including:
Caffeine
◼ Marijuana
◼ Opioids


Unhealthy eating habits
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29
Creating a Personal Plan for
Managing Stress

Identifying stressors



Designing your plan



Journal for a week or two
Spot patterns
Techniques for coping
Contract
Getting help
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30
A Sample Stress Journal
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31
Stress Project
Stress Diary—You will be keeping a Stress Diary for three days—. For each day
you will fill out the following chart. Be sure to rate EACH event (least stressful
AND most stressful) on a scale from 1-10.
1= least stressful, 10= most stressful.
Day_______
Time________
Rating 1-10—10 is worst_________________
Most Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Time________
Rating of 1-10—10 is worst_______________
Least Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Day_______
Time________
Rating 1-10—10 is worst_________________
Most Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Time________
Rating of 1-10—10 is worst_______________
Least Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Day_______
Time________
Rating 1-10—10 is worst_________________
Most Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Time________
Rating of 1-10—10 is worst_______________
Least Stressful Event_____________________________
Comments about event, time, people, body reaction__________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Answer these summary questions at the end of day three (Sunday):
1. Do you see any patterns—explain them. (observe times, ratings, what you were
doing, people involved activity involved.)
2. Identify two high stress situations from your diary. What is one healthy way you
could have dealt with each scenario.
3. Identify two low stress situations from your diary. How could you add more
activities like this one into your daily life?
4. Based on everything we learned about stress, burnout and your personality—
What are three things you need to address that will help you to
–maintain your mental health
–decrease the amount of stressors you have negative reactions to
–avoid burning out.
BE SURE TO USE SPECIFIC AND MEASURABLE GOALS
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