1-To complete this assignment, you must summarize two articles based on your issue that have different positions (or different expressions of the same position). For each source, I want you to identify:The thesis statement of the essay or articleThe position of the authorAt least six direct quotations that illustrate that positionAfter you have summarized the essay and selected your quotations, prepare a brief analysis (about two paragraphs) that highlights how these positions are the same or different. This basic analysis will form a foundation for the analysis of your Dual Position Essay due later in the semester.2- Turn in your working draft of Essay 3 prior to Workshop 3. Essays turned in after Workshop 1 starts will not be accepted for credit. If you do not have the appropriate essay completed, you may not complete the workshop for credit.
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Oil, the most important commodity
It is true to say that Oil is a crucial thing in the lives of all people in the world. Its
significance can be traced back from the days of Churchill when security was a major issue
(Kruse, Felix). During this time the world experienced the first mechanized war where oil played
the most crucial role for the fighting countries. Imagine living in world without oil how life
would be difficult. The impact oil has on the lives of people cannot be understated as the history
and today statistics suggest. According to the survey which was conducted in the year 2002 by
the United States by the department of geological survey, it has explained the importance of oil,
giving facts and statistics. This is not only captivating to researchers and experts who loves
complex facts and data but is also easy to understand for any person with interest in Oil and its
importance to the world.
Oil is a necessity to many factories which manufacture various products for human
consumption. This makes oil a Secondary need if not basic as some may suggest .Oil is also able
to sustain any country and trigger the economic growth rapidly. Imagine a case where a country
gross domestic product depends that has always relied on oil is cut short, what would happen?
Running out of oil means that financial conditions of such countries are endangered. This is
because oil offers Foreigners and countrymen income from working in big companies especially
in Middle East. In addition, Specialist foreigners like engineers, accountants, drivers and security
guards are dependants of such oil companies. The paper also provides an overview of countries
generating oil, their past oil history, discovered oil reserves and also the trends in which those
countries are taking concerning oil.
The economy of many Middle East countries primarily depend oil and if the processing
of oil was deteriorating, the level of economy also goes down. This is the reason why the Middle
East population is considered to be rich. Worldwide, Oil is consumed making its demand always
high. For example, Plastics are used in every aspect of human life. Several processes are
involved in the manufacturing of plastics from the crude oil. This means that if oil was to cease
in production, there will be no more plastics manufactured. The product and goods will not be
wrapped or kept without plastic and this will make life very difficult for the people. Not only the
plastics are made from oil but there are also other activities which cannot run without the use of
oil such as Motors, aircrafts, and trains ships and also industries. Electricity is also is produced
through the use of oil.
In the United States, it is proven that with the exclusion of reserve of strategic petroleum,
crude oil level had reached 36.4 billion barrels by the end of year 2014. These reserves of 2014
proved that it was the greatest reserve since the year 1972. Earlier in 1988, the production level
of crude oil in the United States had declined due to the production obtained from Alaska though
it later increased between 2009 and 2015. It is noteworthy that between 1970 and 2006, oil
production was reported to be 102 billion barrels (Bird, Kenneth, and David Houseknecht). As
the oil price peaked, more projects were carried and the oil produced domestically has increased.
United States took fewer years to develop their field of oil. To proof this, there was an
increment of about 800,000 barrels of oil in the year 2012. This was record breaking event since
the time drilling of oil started in 1859. Currently the state has opened many drilling localities in
Saudi Arabia and even in Russia. Experts in the field of oil suggest that USA could surpass
countries like Saudi Arabia to be the largest producer of oil worldwide.
Recoverable oil barrels in the United States is estimated to be134 billion. More than 1
million wells of oil have been drilled since the year 1949 in the United States of America.
According Geological Survey of United States, undiscovered onshore of oil barrels are estimated
to be about 48.5 billion. The geological survey has been assessing the priority basins of oil and
gases in the country. Those priority areas discovered by the survey are the formation of Bakken,
ANWR coastal plain and the Reserve Petroleum of Alaska. (Anon, 2017)
The area around Artic national wildlife refuge contained oil reserves estimated to be 5.7
to 16 billion barrels which was undiscovered. The EIA utilized this report to assess the
estimation of the potentiality of cumulative oil production in the area of the 1002 AZWR to be
4.3billion barrels between the years 2018 to 2030. This estimation is considered to be the best to
have been done of recoverable oil in the production years of the area after the legislation was
passed to start drilling oil. The production of oil is also estimated o have increased from
1767milion units in 2010 to 3104 million units in 2015 (“U.S. Total Crude Oil Proved Reserves,
Reserves Changes, And Production”). This is a tremendous increase and reflects the economy growth of
USGS had released a report on a new assessment on April 2008, which focused on the
Bakken formation located in North Dakota and Montana respectively. The United States
Geology Survey has a belief that with the advancement on current technology in drilling, there
exists a barrel of oil ranging 3-4.5 billion which is undiscovered. If this estimation is right, it
would make the place the largest accumulation of oil to have been discovered in the United
States of America history. In addition, this formation is regarded to possess significant figures of
oil barrels exceeding 150 billion. There is uncertainty as to what volume of oil is accessible with
the current use of the technology available in the drilling of oil. Harold claimed that the share of
the recoverable oil seems to reach massive figure barrels of 24 billion. This means that there is
more crude oil that is expectable in the Bakken formation than other oil drills in the country.
In 2015, prices of oil dropped by 47% than the previous year, which caused investors to
postpone their developmental plans. They opted to technically improve their crude oil reserves
to try boosting again the prices. In the same year, 2015, there was felt net increase in proven
crude oil reserves through the developments of Bone spring and Shale of Wolfcap in Delaware
Basin located in New Mexico.
Consequently, natural gas dropped by 42% in 2015 forcing the operators to do the same
thing like they did to oil reserves. United States gave statistical proof that reserves of natural
gases had declined by 16.6%. Natural gas at Ohio was increased by 5Tcf which overtook the
Mexico Gulf and Arkansas to be ranked as number nine largest reserve state of natural gas. In the
ten consecutive years, the production of natural gas in USA was increasing. An increment of 4%
was recorded from 2014. Land Management Bureau suggests that currently, United States of
America contain the biggest oil shale in the world and hold in possession about 2.175 trillion of
oil barrels which are recoverable.
Oil is essential in the world that we live in. the electricity generation is made possible by
use of oil. According to EIA research, United States gets its electricity from coal, natural gas and
petroleum. Each has its contribution with coal having the highest, followed by the natural gas
and petroleum with the list. This research shows that approximately 67% of energy generated in
the country comes from the oil derivatives which are produced in the power stations. Big
turbines are used to move the power generators and the natural gas is the main source of fuel
used to power those turbines when generating the electricity. Oil availability makes the whole
process of generating electricity to be a success. Imagine what will happen if oil was not
available! Homes that use electricity will be opted to use a candle which is an awkward scenario
to happen in big homes.
Suppose there is decline in the amount of oil, the little amount of oil that would be in
reserves would belong to the private sector and the government. Prices of commodities and the
standards of living will be costly resulting to an economic crisis due to inflation. Countries like
Nigeria, Venezuela and Algeria that do not have other major economic activities other than oil,
will be left devastated if oil well were to dry.
To conclude, heavy reliance of oil production can cause a country to experience an
economic shock. The UN has foreseen this and has come up with a plan to prevent such shock by
suggesting an alternative usage of renewable resources. They held a talk which brought countries
together for the purpose of convincing them to convert to green energy. To date Moroccans are
leading other countries in this attempt. If countries were to adopt this measure, the likelihood of
experiencing drought of energy in the future will be low. However, Oil remains to be the most
important thing in the universe for the human race.
Bird, Kenneth, and David Houseknecht. “U.S. Geological Survey 2002 Petroleum Resource Assessment Of
The National Petroleum Reserve In Alaska (NPRA).” 2002, https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs045-02/.
Energy Information Agency, (EIA ,2007). “Petroleum Basic Statistics”. U.S. Department of
Energy. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
Kruse, Felix. Oil Politics: The West And Its Desire For Energy Security Since 1950. Hamburg,
Anchor Academic Publishing, 2014,.
“U.S. Total Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, And Production.” Eia.Gov, 2016,
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