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1)In this chapter 8, when you have an informal and off the record chat with one of the performers after the meeting, what question will you use as the most important prompt to help you structure that conversation? Why?Hint: Please reference the course content at page 127( don’t use other reference )2)In this chapter 9, the researchers say… “If great manager seem scare, it’s because the talent required to be one is rare.” Gallup finds that great managers have several talents listed at page 140. Can you choose one talent that you think it would be the most important trait for you to be a great manager? And explain why?


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– r, au wrll cio as a solutron.
– :lave this list of rortt causes
r- .ertainly incompLete ancl
-lcr people rvho are on the
– ‘n: ic$ ,rl rihrt i>g,’rn.t,,[]r. not mentioninq soma
:’:mber. the prrrblem holdci
r..-.r lo perlormance. This i.
-.,1’l be vrsrble until
#freffiffi&ffi#- ffi
Iiyou’solutloneer’ at lhi:
:. ..rrnance problem. yoLi ar.
Stage 3 – After the meeting
-..1 tltent ,,n thr’tr ir:in’..,-:–.’rn in a vay that lels [f ie r:
.. hc lur:r’rriu’,rking rr’i:-

ir u,’ants lvith theLr
actua1l1r need so Lhe-v‘–(rme rvhat the). rvanL an-
-i.rt rvas. because ther,
Most people learning too narrowly as ntere ‘proble m-solving,,
so they focus on identift,ing and correcting errors in the external
enyirorunent Solving problems is importctnt. But if learning is to
persist, mcntd.gers and employees nrust also looh inward. They need
to reJ’l”ect critically on their ownbehayiour, identiJy the ways they
often inadt,ertently contribute to the otganisation pr”oblems, and
then change how they act.
Chris Argvris
‘T-ha Irimrrr , ‘utr r’rrtc: ol this thircl stage are to c()mplete the clizrgntrsties,
Lgr,’r. thc .’,iuri,’n. ir to be usec1. and start takrng action. In eflect, thc
pcrformance cor-Lsultancy llrocess
morph inio it prolect manaqement
1l all has gone r,r.ell cluring rhe first Lw-() stages,
1,ou will b1,nor,v, have a good
foundation rn p1ace. The problerr-r holder will have realised rhat rhe ir initial
requeslecl solr-rtitx rvoulcl not have soh.ed their problem. ahhough of course
lt could encl up berng a part ol the eventual solulion. The1, lvill no longer be


{,,qF,q8{LIrY AE BWI}RK
and someone
They w111 see you as an a1ly
in[eracting with you as an order taker’
now have
problem- You
who can help them a”,i”atf-t their perfoimance
abour rhe probable barriers
;;;g” ;;”r’nt of inlormarlon about rhe slruarlon, effectively’
and some initlal
that are getting 1″ th” ;;; tJ people performing
icleas on how to deal wrth those barriers’
[o [ake the process forward’ This
You need to lhink carefully about how
a solutlon
the future programme to implement
w111 depend on the stal” of
to deal with the
also need
thc numher of people who are involvecl’ You may
i,,li.;;i8tt. who may sLili be lumping up and d’rwn wanlinP’
point of work- Thhow they do thinq,
and what theY nez
Cther than the fac
they can feed inti
the problem, ther
The perlormers br
success of those s’
way lo achreving t
Be careful
been defined
training course.
been told bY the
is only one side of t’he story’ It would
particular part ol tt-t” ,,ginisution’ That
into choosing and implementing
not be wise [o *ou” f,r”r-urd at thrs s[age
*ho* you shouid speak to get a balanced
several groups of stakehold”” *]th
from their Point
w111 get from thr
be a significant c
unlikely to have
and a wlllingnes
balance of view
percetved as the
prove relevant and useful:
that is’ the people
1. The workers who are at the heart of the problem;
or another’ are not
who are.the performers who’ for one reason
capable of performing at an adequate
The managers of the Performers
The manager of the problem holder
are allected by the curren[
Peopie ln other operational areas who
be affected bY solving the
ieople in other operational areas who will
with the solulions’
O ieopl” who will probably need lo be involved
The performers
am continually surprlsecl by how many
see solutions to a performance
wirh the performers’ Perhaps ir is
pr,:rfrL”* put in ptu.. ittlot’r any dialogue
what is happening at the
because management thinks it totally,ir-rd”rrtunds


You should, of c
members of his t
however, he ma
the amount of i
productivitY. BY
ship between th
may also indrcat
they fear will cc
with the team.
If the grouP t”t
tional unit, rhe:
the problem the best oe -particular ind.’;
problem ht–ir<: leam memb::= {*r.cq-r 3 ls :rn a1ly :r bu and somear.. also now- har--: :he probable barrier: r e 1r', and some r--,cess * 4,r re*. irEr !rrrF{, - -,int of work. Thrs ls never the case. The perlormers have a unlque r.iew of - --u- they do things, wha[ m:rkes their job easy or dillicult. who they rely on, .rd what they need in order to be able to do their ]ob more easily. initi.t lorward Thi. :rpLement a sohrtirrr rress. it depencls or r-:e d ro deal .,i,ith rhc .rd dttwn rvanting : -'iher than the lact that they hal,e a huge amouni oI uselul information thar :-1.)r can feed rnto the process ol declding on the ac[lons needed to solrre -:e problem. the;r are the people u,ho will be taking many of thosc actions. -he performers buy-in to the chosen solutions wr11 usually be crucial ro the :.-iCCeSS ol those solutrons, and including them in the process wlll go a long '.', a)- to achieving that buy-in le :i irom the probiern :-.erlbrmance o1'tha: ,'i the sroryr It woulci : and implementtng I :tt)rv There will be <.rk to get a balance c1 i--rrnation that could :hat is, rhe people r.-iher, are not r'[he current :d by solving rhe carelul in 1,es, approach to the organisational r,rnjt or team thrr has reen defined as underperformtng. AL1 you have so far is what you have :een told by the problem holder. and although I woulcl hope it rs accurate -rom their point of vieu,. it may weli be very differenL to the story you u-il1 get lrom the performers. The problem holder Lhemselr,es may well oe a signilicant contributor [o the poor performance, and olcourse this is un1lke1y [o have surlaced during your meeting with them. An open mrnd and a u,illingness to hear a1l sides ol the story rs essential. You need the balance of views between the probiern holder and rhe people who are perceirred as the problem. bu should, of course, ask the probLem holde r for permission ro approaclr members ol his team. Thls is a reasonable request ancl can hardly be refusecl, however, he may attach some conditrons Io 1-our interaclitrn with them il the amounL ol time y(ru 3i-e requcsrlng u-ith them wouid interrupt [herr productlvit;,1 13y the response yolr get, you r,vi11 learn a lot about rhe relarionshrp betrveen the problem holcler and their [eam. Sometimes, their resp()nse may also rnchcate that the problem hoider could be hiding rnformation rhar they lear will come to the surlace when you cliscnss the pertbrmance issuc with the team. the solutions ol people who are underperlorming covers a rvhole (rrganisational unit, there may welL be one or more layers of management betr,veen the problem hoicle r ancl the performers. Ask the problem holcler r,vho r,vor,rld be the best peopie to speak with, ancl alsLr ask why he rec(.)mmends those particular indivlduals as a good source o1 information. 1r can be helplul il the problem holder sends an email rtr message asking ftrr cooperatron lrom the [eam members when you approach them 1l the group ri i0 a perfr:rmance :rrers. Perhaps it is s happening ar rhe -125- ilapaptl-rrc .qr &V*x.Ei lnformal chats Yourfirststepistohaveabrieflnformaldiscussionwiththerecommended in order tthers who were not recommended' plus members, team ""'pi" "f d"scribe the problem il t1:":u*: wav as the ro get a sense of -h";;;i;;f Now that vieu is signi ficantly cfillerent problem h.rlder' '.lr wherher'thrir decicle can offer, you extra informatioi they can you have some iclea "i*r-r^, You- can also decide spencl getting their input how much time you '-''t"d to *r'"'i"t u should b":11::i1::i::y]or how to go about intervlew process' or questionnalres chars. for example, o'ou tt"ttttred *"d;;;[*"1'' lacil itated grouP 5essions' b1 aiv.are However you decide lo proceed" that they may be reluctant lo reveal thekindofinformation{ratisneededinordertomakeanacculatediagnosis. When You have an :ii: ers, lhere are a [e* ;-: thal conversation: . . What ar'?rclil:: What is their "--s this bring uP indifference' c': . What do thel : haPPening? ' l: their in any human sysrem_,.,n..1::::t:.* It should also be borne in mrnd rhat Your inreractron of unknown consequence diagnosis is ircelf ';';;;'ion withtheteamwillprobablygenela|esomeb"huviouralchangeswithinthe area' [eam in relation to the problem ne5d the background of effecrively, you In order ro talk wlrh the per{ormers fi"r' *'thot'tt the background' just gt"o the preceding process' lf you 't'"* as much iI you go discussion' but nothing like you will get value [tot'-t titt descrlbed fhe performance consultancy process'as prepared, having clone the because the issues is another plus' h"t;il;;iLy y"' that fact "'"u"tltd know quite a 1ot tlo tut"' and that you c1o already they will realise ;;;"; to a '; ;6;11 also t'eei that they are contributlng about whar i. goirfi politically it is being mked simply because than investlgat'i-o'n rather correct to do so' *t26- "1 holders vT errl good looks lik' itispossibl"th't'y'ttlaticdlstortionswrlloccurwithintheinformation theygive.Thedirectj.onolthesedistor[ionswillclepenclontheclimateofthe respondents will is one of distrust and insecurity, .tir.^," the If organisation. ol fear of blame' inlormation from you because most likely h,d" u'y d'-aging whistle it-' th" misarlventures of This is something, "" #?;:;"''"p*"ary blowers.Alltheteammembersmayviewthein[erview'surveyorteslasan invasionofrheirprivacyandprovide.,i,'i',*tanSweISglfli5llrrtionsbased the climate be ih" t*p"t'"cl or sa{e tttp".ltlt--lf on what they conslder to y-"-l-1:'i: 1ikely to vlew contact with is one of hlgh ^tt exaggerarlon an to ""J;;;;at""g"p"t of{ their chesLs' leading opportuni.ty ," g"' 'ii'r''ln exrst' oi whatever Problems may vieu' . D()es the Prt'bi to them? Cr d' . What needs tc things to be P' What currentl What theY tol What barriers to the require uP with in rhr Who else is tt Are there oth Lan theY adc . ' . . ' ' . Can thrngs ir' can the Proc' in addition, . ' ' You ctr: Find out $'i didn'l u ":' Mentitrn t -: with the ::-' Ask ab"-:: and the:: --: 5l.qfip 3 ] ihe recommended 'mmended, in order he same way as the iillerent. Now that irer, you can decide reluctant to reveal when you have an informal that conversation: . accurate dragnosis. tr. respondents will use olfear olblame. -entures ol whistle sunrey or les[ as an based t.m, the process of ce . Ycrur interaction .nanges within the :ne backgrouncl ol the background. :-rt .rs much if you ..s as What awareness of the performance problem clo they have? what is their view of rhe perlormance problem? wtrar emotion does this bring up within them: frustration, anger, resignation, surprise or indilhrence, or something else? What clo they think should be happenlng insteacl o[ what is a things to be possible? What currently lrustrates them? What they tolerating now rhar usecl ro frustrate them? what barriers are there that get in the way olthem cloing thelr jobs to the required standard? (Discuss rhe list or barriers that you came up with in the meeting with the problem holder.) Who else is involved wlth this, outside the rlirect team? Are there others involved who are in other silos in the business? Can they add Lo the srakeholder diagram? Can thrngs be slmplified wirhout adding unclue risk? For example, can the process be simplified? ln additlon, you can... grr described. The r:her plus, because ir know quite a 1oi e contributing L0 ause ancl olI the record chat wrth one of the perf.rmyou can use as prompts to help you slructure happening? ls their view olwhar 'good'looks like rhe same as rhe problem holders view? 1f not, why not? (Explain your unclerstanding ol what good looks like, and discuss the difl'erence.) Does the problem holders ,iew ol what good iooks like make sense to them? Or do rhey eunsider ir sil1y or impossible? what needs to happen/change rn order ror the desired way of clorng ,n ihe climate of rhe ri dlstortions :{E i1{EF,.i.'rr{G e,rs, there are a f'er'v quesrions r:n the iniormation nses. 1l the climate -aci with you as an i ro 3o exaggeration ArrEca r Informal chats tru can aLso decide ). through inibrmal r questionnaires or ,e * a it ls pollticalh Fincl out whar changes have been tried befbre. ancl ask whv rhe' drdnt work Mention a lew ol rhe proposecl solutions thar came rrom the meetlng with the problem holder, and ask il those sorutions seem reasonabre Ask about the management they experience from their team leader. and their line managers. - 127 Ceraart-lrv ar W*ei< is that but it is well worthwhile' Something Thls is cluite a lisr to go through' to the current Sther issues,that seem unrelated sure to happen r ,f"t *'"y are working you mentioned' Remember that performance problem;li;"; will that affects the team and its members a system h"'u, u"i with affect their ProductivitY' '"ytf""g Group sessions a discussion q talk to the a $oup and facilitate An advanrlge of ,hi. o the potential around the points -"rriio".a utorr". 1t is also posslble always be und Thls must be problem with except at ther oblivrous to d thelr team and suggesting tha for the freeflowofideas;italsoglvesahighlevelofvisibihtytothediagnosticsploCeSS, whichmakeseventhosewhowerenotinvolvedwiththediscusslonsfeelthat process' their colleagues were part ol the their voice is being r-r"ura, u".u"se ln many of the co get acti've the fishbone dragram as ^^way to a group session, you can use of the ownership They will have"a sense of f"'fo'"lers' involvement from that' they 'f'" the root causes. Following on from decision as to whal actually are that is put in place to tackle will gain a sense "r "*""irrrip of the solution the root causes. ls that fishbone diagram 9n 1wh-riteboard Another advanuge of using the a from it at looklng to one side and then you are pushing the problem oYt lo solution when the problem' or the distance. Thls is u'"ryuseful technlque iht"u' the people y?"'1" ulking with' the problem, i, ,"""-1'-u significant 'o then stand back and look at it together' Take the problem, pin rt on the-wall' ltismuchlessthreateningtotalkabout.tharproblemoverthere,thantoface someone and say'you have a problem'' and [o running a facilitatel gt":O session There is, however, a disadvantage pu1led the siion being hijacked and rhrs is the danger is that the group "?;;;;;th*k'o'.of ti"o vttd puople' Another disadvantage off course by one best "' they insist is the absolute' only and may come ,p t'ltt' a solution thai solu[ion,whicht'"g't"ttt"toillfeelingi[someothersolutionisihenchosen instead of theirs' When discuss same list of bt is i.ntroduced musl rest witl who manage I to provide an As with the P managers tog help them pr through the I is the same sc the original P As you enter implement ea within thr are crearing the wili depend 1 r they go into to their role I When you al it is betier if their boss or open or hon them to do r The managers one of the root performance consultancy fishbone causes that is on almost every are responsible for so Managers diagram t have ever seen is poor management -l)B- out of the ft group of mr information $gacp 3 ''rthwhile. Somc::-, . :.:m unrelated t,,. : ,. i:nber that you a:. !: te am and lts rrii:- -: ,t) . JlrJ la( ilitatc a - ,.]h - 'ni u - responsibility lor the poor performance rhem. Havrng said that, lhere Ls every chance that the people abrliLl' ,,:,-.{e lhem, and so or-t up th. hierarchl', are also failins rn their the people they lnanage ' -i-:-an adecluare managclnenl sen icc to ,.,^.'tc1 because at leasl some ---.irrth .r--dttt J d wf,) lr1 -.'- l -e IlSr r,1 rrWIlCl-:L .l 1rp f6, r11 -i. ::'rat is put in place :. leaders or hne -ne perlormers, yclu cou1c1 galher a lew ol the leam - -:r: iogether and lacllitare them through using the fishbone diagram to - -.:iit ptoduaa a list trl rLrot causes or barllers lcr performance. Then gc' .. ih. hsr of barriers and ask them what could be done about rhese. it - _ :,rlre solutions brainstorming approach thal you r.vouid have used wtth , on a whiteboard then looking at 1: :1m :d r-: problem, or the s01 Irnal problem - : peopie you're talkir. ^.rr k rrnrl lo,,k et it t, : '.r'm lrVL T th. rr" Ih;l1'. ,:rclli[ated group - . se-q*ci. . i. l.rinA hil.r.kiJ .rnrt'i: thri thc - - ,dr ant.iqc Lh< absolute. ,'nii should Llse the r-'-,sslng the per{trrmance problem w-ith a manaller' you can ' :: irr{ - - rnptrnents c-,1capabillty that the cluality c'f management -,ltr scrutiny when thete is a perlormance problem' ...oulletpointsmentionedabove..lustbear,l,areclfthedynamicthat .irLh thc discrrssi.,---'-.i-i we re part ol the '11,,1 h{iLE'}{}r{; consicleraLion wl-ren discussLng the perlbrmance else -:t them. Many managers rvill point the hnger ever)'r'vhere rt'rll be :-:n-Lse1ves. Orhers w-i1l va110r,v rn self-b1ame . Sti11 0lhers - ,.- ihe rt-,1e they should have been playing ln the performance ol ' '.rc1 may actually be quite surprised and affronted if someone starLs : -rat lhey could have clone better' '. -. iagn, ,-r :. - r, , t hc d ]Hf. - ::: taken inlo .)l this is the po[en - ., . * Arrua :,n. iltcr 'LrluLi.rn i- Lhcn.- irrance consuLtancy fi sh: ,r.lqcTs are rcjp, 'n.ilrl. i ho1cler. to . cnler the list ol possible solulions, ask who would be best placed - : urdrlt each soiution lnerntably, they will realise that many ol the soiutitll-ts their own part in . -,hin their remlt. ancl u.rrh that they rvjl1 also Iecognise ..']lgtheperlormanceproblem,orallowir-rgiLtoextst.Whathappensnext ,..iend un th. quahtv ol people u'ho have those management roles' Will q.. ir-tro c1enta1, or will they commit ro learning a better rvay and slep up . --:ir rur1e as a manager? -.n )/ou are going through this kLnd ol process wiLh a group ol managers. Il .", il a1i the people in Lhe .qroup are at the same hierarchical 1eve1. .-. r boss or anrtther senior manager is in the fL)om, the,v are unlikely [o be as ,-.n or honest. lt is also possible that the senior manager r'vill start directlng lvhal has come ._l1n Lo c1o certarn things or behave a certain way. based on is much better il the _.i ol rhe fishbone ciiagiam ancl rhe list ol solutions. 1t .:rup of managers coiectivell' ciecide how thel' u'ill respond to the new they :iormarion, ani rhen present this to thelr line manasers as something - t)9 fl e raa ral:rg*,'rg sv*El nx the 'training is the and this is somethlng they are taking ownershrp' would like to do' 1n effect' you should encourage' z they understand th range of barriers to which ones'are quickly the' notice at looking are you When a bad one' or t"Aty because that solution is ;'i #;;' the by dismissed isitbecauseimplemeniingthatsolutionwillresultinsomekindoflossfor Do not be drawn i be put in place. J diagnosis process the managers? recommendadonsas a performance prob]em ' quality of management It is possible io look at*the ton"lt'ncy as anissue'in its own righl' and run that through the perlormant" key factors Ior a management is one of the poor thal apparent 1f it becomes look at thei the next step may wiii be to team or organisationai;;i^'l'"g' example' for p"'fo'*"lt" f'oblem tather than' management as [he f imu'y produced by rhe [eam. ,rr. I1i".rrr", of widgets being holder The manager of the Problem be someone h:11:t is the CEO' so there will It is unlikely that the problem even be the u'-'a of course that mav problem the of boss the is lold."'' who matters' no[ ieas[ stakeholder' and their opinion CEO. They u'" a"ft'-tLiy a will need ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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