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1. In your own words, explain what three types of business documents created in Microsoft Word. Thoroughly explain your examples. Please count your words and do not use citations.Minimum word count 250
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Paragraph Formatting
4
LESSON SKILL MATRIX
Skill
Exam Objective
Objective Number
Formatting Paragraphs
Set indentation.
2.2.7
Setting Line Spacing in Text and Between Paragraphs
Set line spacing.
Modify line spacing.
Set paragraph spacing.
2.2.5
3.3.4
2.2.4
Creating and Formatting a Bulleted List
Add numbering or bullets.
M custom bullets.
Create
Modify
I list indentation.
Increase and decrease list levels.
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.5
Creating and Formatting a Numbered List
Lisst
Add
Ad
nuumbering orr bullets.
bul
ulle
lets
le
ts.
ts
H numbering
Modify
Modifyy numbering.
numberingg.
3.3.1
3.33
3.
3.3.6
3.3
S
T
,
Creating and Modifying a Multilevel List
st
J
O
S
H
U
A
KEY TERMS
• alignment
• first-line indent
6
8
9
0
B
U
• hanging indent
• horizontal alignment
• indent
• leaders
• line spacing
• negative indent
• vertical alignment
© mbtphotos/iStockphoto
Setting and Modifying Tabs
91
92
Lesson 4
You are employed at Books and Beyond, an independent used bookstore.
Your job responsibilities include receiving and assessing used books,
issuing trade credit, stocking the bookshelves, and placing special orders.
Because you have good computer skills, you are also responsible for creating and modifying documents as needed. Currently, you are working
on the store’s employee handbook. In this lesson, you learn how to use
Word’s formatting features to change the appearance of paragraphs. In
particular, you learn to set indents; change alignment and line spacing;
create numbered, bulleted, and multilevel lists; and set tabs.
© mbtphotos/iStockphoto
S
M
The Indents and Spacing Tab in the Paragraph Dialog Box
I
The Paragraph dialog box contains Word’s commands for changing paragraph alignment,
T and Spacing tab of the Paragraph
nd spaci
c ng. The
Th Indents
Parag
indentation, aand
spacing.
dialog box is
gu
uree 4-1.. Use
Use
s thi
his fi
hi
figggure
urrH
e as a rreference
eference thr
hrou
hr
ough
ou
ghou
gh
ut this
th
h lesson
les
essso as well as the rest
es
shown in Figure
this
throughout
k.
of this book.
,
SOFTWARE ORIENTATION
Ali
i
Alignment
options
J
O
S
H
U
A
Click the arrows to
increase or decrease
Left or Right indent
6
8
9
0
B
U
Spacing Before and
After paragraph
Select Special Indentations: Default
settings (None), First Line, and
Hanging
Click the drop-down arrow to
view Line spacing options
Default Line spacing setting.
Click arrows to adjust Line
spacing
Preview area
Opens Tabs dialog box
Option to change settings in
dialog box and set as Default
Figure 4-1
Indents and Spacing tab of the Paragraph dialog box
Paragraph Formatting
93
FORMATTING PARAGRAPHS
The Bottom Line
Paragraph formatting is an essential part of creating effective, professional-looking documents in
Word. When a document is formatted properly and text is spaced and positioned, the reader can
focus on the content. Word’s paragraph formatting feature enables you to determine paragraph
alignment, indentation, and spacing between paragraphs. Word’s formatting features also enable
you to remove paragraph formatting altogether.
Setting Indents
Indents can be used to set paragraphs off from other text in your documents. Word documents
can include first-line indents, hanging indents, and negative indents. The commands for indenting paragraphs are available in the Paragraph command group on the Home tab, as well as in
the Paragraph command group of the Page Layout tab. Both command groups have dialog box
launchers that give you access to additional commands. In this exercise, you learn to set indents
using the dialog box and the ruler.
S
An indent is a blank space inserted between text and the left or right margin. A first-line indent
M margin and the first line of the paragraph (one-half inch is the
inserts blank space between the left
default setting for this indent). A Ihanging indent, common in legal documents and in a bibliography page, begins the first full line of text in a paragraph at the left margin; all the remaining lines
T from the left margin. A negative
rag
a raph aare
re then
n in
indented
g
in the paragraph
indent extends paragraph
text into th
the
margin.
You
can
indent
paragraphs
margin, the right margin, or
he le
lleft
ft m
arrgin.. Y
ou
u ca
aH
n in
ndeent parag
graphs ffrom
rom th
ro
thee left
ft m
both, and
you
the
indents
Word’s
paragraph-formatting
tools. You can also
d yo
ou ca
can
n se
set th
he sizess ooff ind
den
nts using W
ord’
or
d s paragr
grap
gr
aphap
h-ffor
hdrag the mark
markers
indent markers as they
kers on th
kers
ke
thee ruler too,set indents.
ind
dents. Table
T blee 4-1 shows the
Ta
thee various
var
appear on
n the ruler.
r ler
ru
Table 4-1
Indent Option
Types of indents on the Ruler
First-line indent
Hanging indent
Left indent
J
O
S
H
U
A
Associated Marker on the Ruler
Right indent
6
8
9
0
Set First-Line Indents
B
U
GET READY. Before you begin these steps, be sure to launch Microsoft Word.
Negative indent
STEP BY STEP
1. Connect your flash drive to one of the USB ports on your computer.
2. Click the File tab, and then click Computer.
3. Click the Browse button. Use the vertical scroll bar to scroll down and locate the data
files for this lesson on your flash drive. Double-click the lesson folder to open it.
4. Locate and OPEN the file named Books Beyond .
5. Click the View tab. Then, in the Show group, click the check box that displays the Ruler.
6. Select the four paragraphs under Acknowledgement .
7. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the dialog box launcher located in the
bottom right corner of the group. Verify that the Indents and Spacing tab is the active tab.
8. In the Indentation section of this tab, change the Special selection by clicking the dropdown arrow and selecting First line. The By box lists 0.5 inches by default, as shown in
Figure 4-2.
94
Lesson 4
Figure 4-2
Paragraph dialog box
First-line indent
default is .5”
The open document is set
to Single line spacing
Another Way
You can also click
to place the insertion point
anywhere within the paragraph
to set the indent, and then
drag the first-line indent marker
on the ruler (see Figure 4-3)
to the place where you want
the text to be indented.
S
M
I
T
H
,
Preview of paragraph
P
J
O
9. Click OK . The first line of eachSparagraph is indented 0.5 inches from the left margin.
Figure 4-3
10. Figure 4-3 displays the ruler and
H the paragraphs with the first-line indent you just set.
Ruler with first-line indent
marker on paragraphs
U
First line indent
A
marker on ruler
6
8
9
0
B
U
Paragraph Formatting
95
11. Select the four paragraphs under Introduction.
12. On the horizontal ruler, press and hold the left mouse button and drag the First-line
marker to 0.5 inches.
indent
Troubleshooting Click the View tab and choose Ruler from the Show command group.
13. Select all the paragraphs under the General Performance Expectation Guidelines .
Another Way
To indent the first
line of a paragraph, click in
front of the line and press Tab.
To indent an entire paragraph,
select the whole paragraph and
press Tab.
14. On the Page Layout tab, in the Paragraph group, launch the Paragraph dialog box, and
change the Special selection to First line by clicking the drop-down arrow. Click OK to
accept the default setting of 0.5 inches.
15. Select both paragraphs under the Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity.
16. Right-click and select Paragraph—this is another way to open the Paragraph dialog box.
17. Change the Special selection to First line. Click OK . Using a shortcut method, you can
also access the Paragraph dialog box.
18. SAVE the document as B&B First Line Indent in the lesson folder on your flash drive.
2.2.7
How would you set indents?
STEP BY STEP
S to use in the next exercise.
PAUSE. LEAVE the document open
M
I
Set Hanging
g g Indents
T
USE the document
do
ocu
cume
ent that
tha
h t iis
s op
open
pen
nH
from
m the previous exercise
exercise.
se.
se
,
1. Place
e the
e ins
insertion
nsertiion point att the be
ns
beginning
eginning off the first par
paragraph
rag
grap under the heading
Acknowledgement
paragraphs.
nowle
edgemen
ent,
en
t , and then
the
hen select
se
ele
lect
ct the
the first
rstt ttwo
wo p
aragra
raph
ra
phs.
ph
2. On the Home tab, launch the Paragraph dialog box and change the Special selection
from First Line to Hanging.JClick OK . The first line of both paragraphs begins at the left
of the margin whereas the O
remaining paragraphs are indented 0.5 inches from the left
margin.
Figure 4-4
S the last two paragraphs. On the horizontal ruler, press
3. Under the same heading, select
and hold the left mouse button
H and drag the first-line indent marker so that it
aligns with the left margin. You need to reposition the first-line indent marker so that
U dragging the hanging indent marker. Your markers on
it doesn’t move when you begin
the ruler should match Figure 4-4.
Markers on ruler aligned
First line and
Hanging indent
markers are
aligned to the
left margin
The selected
paragraphs are no
longer indented
A
6
8
9
0
B
U
96
Lesson 4
4. Press and hold the left mouse button and drag the hanging indent
marker to 0.5
inches. You have now repositioned the marker using the ruler, and both paragraphs are
indented. Your document should look similar to the one shown in Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-5
Sample document with
hanging indent
First line indent
marker is positioned
on left margin
Hanging indent marker
is positioned 0.5” from
the left margin
S
M
I
T
H
,
J
O
S
H
U
A
5. SAVE the document as B&B Hanging Indent in the lesson folder on your flash drive.
6
8
9
0
Set Left and Right Indents
B
USE the document that is open from the previous exercise.
U
PAUSE. LEAVE the document open to use in the next exercise.
STEP BY STEP
1. Select the paragraphs under Introduction.
2. You will move the first-line indent back to the default settings. Launch the Paragraph
dialog box from the Home tab. Under the Special group, select (none) . Click OK . Notice
the paragraphs are left aligned.
3. Select the first two paragraphs under Introduction.
4. Right-click and click Paragraph to open the dialog box. In the Indentation group, change
the left and right indents to 1 inch by clicking the up arrow. Click OK .
5. Select the last two paragraphs under the same heading.
6. On the Page Layout tab, in the Paragraph group, click the up arrow next to Indent Left
to indent the left side of the paragraph to 1 inch on the ruler.
to indent the right side of the
7. Click the up arrow next to Indent Right
paragraph to 1 inch on the ruler. Notice that paragraphs are one inch from the left and
right margins (see Figure 4-6).
Paragraph Formatting
97
Figure 4-6
Sample document displaying
left and right indents
Left indent marker is
one-inch from the
margin
Right indent marker
is one-inch from the
right margin
S
M
I
T
8. SAVE
E tthe
he
e document
doc
cum
umentt a
as
s B&
B&B
B Left&Right
Le
eft
f & Right Indent
Ind
nden
entt in the
en
he lesson
le
esson
n folder
f
on your flash drive.
H
PAUSE. LEA
LEAVE
document
open
next
exercise.
AVE tthe
he do
docu
cumen
cu
nt o
he
e nex
x t exercis
i e.
,pen too use in tthe
STEP BY STEP
Figure 4-7
Sample document with
negative left indent
Negative left
indent on ruler
J
O
USE the document that is openSfrom the previous exercise.
1. Under the Equal Employment
H Opportunity and Diversity heading, select both paragraphs.
2. Launch the Paragraph dialog box from the Home tab. Under the Special group, select
U
(none) . Click OK .
A the heading.
3. Select the first paragraph under
Set Negative Indents
4. Click the Page Layout tab, in the Paragraph group, click the down arrow next to Indent
to indent the left side of the paragraph to 20.5 inch on the ruler as shown
Left
6
in Figure 4-7.
8
9
0
B
U
Paragraph
extends into
left margin
5. Position your insertion point anywhere in the last paragraph, and then launch the
Paragraph dialog box from the Page Layout tab.
98
Lesson 4
Figure 4-8
Sample document with
negative right indent
6. Under the Indentation group, click the down arrow next to Right to indent the right side
of the paragraph to 20.5 inch (see Figure 4-8). Click OK. When repositioning the
indentations, you can select or place the insertion point anywhere in the paragraph.
For multiple paragraphs, select them and change the indents.
Negative Right Indent
on ruler
S
M
I
T
H
,
Paragraph extends
beyond right
margin
7. SAVE the
he doc
document
ocu
oc
umen
nt a
ass B&B
B Negative
Nega
ative
ve IIndent
nden
nd
entt in
en
n tthe
he
e lesson
les
e son
n folder
fo
older on your flash drive,
and then CLOSE the file.
J
O
Changing paragraph indents can be
S completed by using the Ruler or launching the Paragraph
dialog box found on the Home or Page Layout tabs.
H
U
Changing Alignment
Paragraph alignment refers to howA
text is positioned between a document’s margins. By default,
PAUSE. LEAVE Word open for the next exercise.
Take Note
Another Way
To access the
Paragraph dialog box using the
shortcut method, place the
insertion point in the paragraph,
and then right-click and select
Paragraph from the menu that
appears.
text is left-aligned at the top of the page. However, as you continue to format a document, you
might need to change your text’s horizontal or vertical alignment. In this exercise, you learn to
6
align text left, center, right, and justify and to vertically center text in the document.
8
Horizontal alignment refers to how
9 text is positioned between the left and right margins. There
are four types of horizontal alignments: left align, center align, right align, or justify. Horizontal
0
alignment can be changed in the Paragraph
group on the Home tab. Also, when the Paragraph
dialog box is open and the IndentsB
and Spacing tab is active, you can change alignment in the
General section of the tab. Alternatively, you can use various shortcut keys, as shown in Table 4-2.
U
Table 4-2
Option
Button
Shortcut Keys
Description
Align left
Ctrl1L
Lines up text flush with the left margin, leaving a
ragged right edge
Center
Ctrl1E
Centers text between the left and right margins,
leaving ragged edges on both sides
Align right
Ctrl1R
Lines up text flush with the right margin, leaving a
ragged left edge
Justify
Ctrl1J
Lines up text flush on both the left and right
margins, adding extra space between words as
necessary for a clean look
Horizontal alignment options
Paragraph Formatting
99
Vertical alignment refers to how text is positioned between the top and bottom margins of
the page. Text can be aligned vertically at the top margin, at the center of the page, or at the
bottom of the page, or it can be justified. Top-of-the-page vertical alignment is the default when
launching Word. Centered vertical alignment places the text evenly between the top and bottom
margins. Bottom vertical alignment places text next to the bottom margin of the document.
Finally, justified vertical alignment aligns text evenly among the top, bottom, left, and right
margins (see Table 4-3).
Table 4-3
Option
Description
Top vertical alignment
Aligns text at the top margin
Centered vertical alignment
Aligns text between the top and bottom margins
Bottom vertical alignment
Aligns text at the bottom margin
Vertical alignment options
Justified vertical alignment
S Aligns text equally among the top, bottom, left, and right margins
M
There are two ways to set verticalI alignment.
• From the
he P
Page
a ge Layout
L ayoutt tab,
ta in
th Page Setup dialog box.
T the Page Setup group, launch the
hee L
a ou
ay
ut tab,
taab, under
u nd
n err the
h Page
Paa gee group, you
you
u will
w il
illl find
nd tthe
he Vertical
Ver
ertt
From the
Layout
Alignment pull-down
H
menu.
• From the
he Fi
File
ile
l ttab,
ab, sselect
ele
lect Print
Prin
nt ,then
n Page
Page Setup.
Set
etup
et
p. This launches
lau
a nchees the Page
P
Setup dialog box also.
he Layout
Layyout tab,
tabb under
err the
the Page
Pag
agee group,
grou
gr
oup
ou
p yyou
ou will
wil
ill
ll fi
find
the Vertical
th
Ver
From the
nd the
Alignment pull-down
menu.
STEP BY STEP
J
O
S
Change Alignment to Justify
H
OPEN Books Beyond from the data files from this lesson.
U
1. Select all four paragraphs under Acknowledgement .
A
button. The paragraphs
2. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Justify
are justified between the left and right margins. Notice that the Justify button is
highlighted.
6
8
4. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the arrow in the lower-right corner of
the group to launch the Paragraph
dialog box. The Indents and Spacing tab should be
9
selected.
0
5. In the Alignment list under General, click the drop-down arrow, and then click Justified.
Click OK .
B
6. Select the first two paragraphs
U under General Performance Expectation Guidelines.
Avoid selecting the numbered list.
3. Select all four paragraphs under Introduction.
7. Press Ctrl1J to justify the paragraphs. Using the keyboard shortcut is a quick way to
change the alignment in a paragraph.
8. Select the two paragraphs under Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity and
justify the paragraph using one of the methods.
9. SAVE the document as B&B Justify in the lesson folder on your flash drive.
PAUSE. LEAVE the document open to use in the next exercise.
100
Lesson 4
STEP BY STEP
Change Alignment to Right
USE the document that is open from the previous exercise.
1. Place the insertion point in the first paragraph under Acknowledgement .
button. The right
2. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Align Right
side of the paragraph is even whereas the left is uneven.
3. Select the second paragraph, right-click and select Paragraph.
4. In the Alignment list under General, click the drop-down arrow, and then click Right.
Review the Preview area, the paragraph is right-aligned. Click OK .
5. Select the last two paragraphs under Acknowledgement, and press Ctrl1R to align the
text on the right. The right side of the paragraphs are even, whereas the left are uneven.
6. SAVE the document as B&B Right Align in the lesson folder on your flash drive.
PAUSE. LEAVE the document open to use in the next exercise.
STEP BY STEP
S
M
Change Alignment to Center
I
USE the document
c ment that
cu
tha
h t is o
open
pen
pe
e from
T the previous exercise.
1. Place the
e insertion
insserti
tion
ti
on point
poiint
nt in th
the
he
Accknowledgem
kn
n
e entt heading.
em
headi
ding
ng
ng.
g
HAcknowledgement
2. On the Hom
Home
me ta
tab, in
n th
the Par
Paragraph
rag
graph
group, click
cliickk the
the Centerr
, hd group,
now centered
between
margin.
ntere
ed b
etw
ween the left and
rright
ight ma
m
rgin.
button. The heading is
b
3. Use the multi-selection
ltii l ti
t
and
d select
l t th
the h
headings,
di
Introduction
I t d ti , G
General Performance
Expectation Guidelines, and Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity.
Cross
Ref
STEP BY STEP
J
In Lesson 2, you learn to select textOusing different methods. To select multiple text areas, press
Ctrl and select the text.
S
4. Press Ctrl1E to center the headings
H using the shortcut key.
5. SAVE the document as B&B Centered
Headings in the lesson folder on your flash drive.
U
PAUSE. LEAVE the document open
Ato use in the next exercise.
6
8
USE the document that is open from
9 the previous exercise.
1. Select all four paragraphs under
0 Acknowledgement.
button. The paragraphs are
2. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the Left
B
now left-aligned, which is the default when you begin a new document.
U Introduction.
3. Select all four paragraphs under
Change Alignment to Left
4. Right-click and select Paragraph to open the Paragraph dialog box.
5. In the Alignment list under General, click the drop-down arrow, and then click Left.
Review the Preview area—the paragraphs are aligned left. Click OK .
6. Select the first two paragraphs under General Performance Expectation Guidel …
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