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500 word original content composition, no plagiarism with citation and reference of any source material drawn upon. Cited information relevant to your research must be from primary sources in peer-reviewed publications.Clear definition of working concepts and terminology, presentation of evidence [part 1] Evaluation of strength of evidence as it addresses the questions posed in assignment; additional discussion [part 2] FALLOW ALL THE REQUIRENTS.
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Writing Assignment/ Lab #2 (500 word minimum, quoted or plagiarized material not counted).
Non-human primate culture and learned traditions.
According to McGrew (1998), most evidence of non-human primate culture comes from five
genera: Cebus (capuchin monkeys), Macaca (macaque monkeys), Gorilla (gorilla), Pongo (orangutan),
and Pan(chimpanzees). Two species especially, Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) and chimpanzee (Pan
troglodytes), show innovation, dissemination, standardization, durability, diffusion, and tradition in both
subsistence and nonsubsistence activities.
Your assignment is to research and summarize non-human primate culture and learned traditions,
attempting to address some of the question raised below, and provide your opinion about the rigor of
the concepts and strength of the evidence. You will need to find and report specific examples, and be
clear about the theories suggesting functional explanations of those examples. You might consider
looking for articles on this topic in Journals like American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Nature,
American Journal of Primatology, Science, American Journal of Human Biology, Anthropological Science,
and Current Anthropology.
Here are some citations to articles and books that could be helpful:
Boesch, C. (2011). From material to symbolic cultures: Culture in primates.
http://www.eva.mpg.de/documents/Oxford/Boesch_Material_The-Oxford-Handbook-of-Culture-andPsychology_2012_1567198.pdf
Fragaszy, D. M., & Perry, S. (2008). The biology of traditions: models and evidence. Cambridge
University Press.
Huffman et al. (2008) Cultured Monkeys: Social Learning Cast in Stones. Current Directions in
Psychological Science; 17 (6): 410
McGrew, W. C. (1998). Culture in Nonhuman primates?. Annual Review of Anthropology, 301-328.
Ottoni E. B., & De Oliveira, M. G. (2004). Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) use anvils and
stone pounding tools. American Journal of Primatology, 64, 359-366.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2006). Culture in animals: The case of a non-human primate culture of low aggression
and high affiliation. Social forces, 85(1), 217-233.
Van Schaik, C. P., & Pradhan, G. R. (2003). A model for tool-use traditions in primates: implications for
the coevolution of culture and cognition. Journal of Human Evolution, 44(6), 645-664.
Whiten, A. (2000). Primate culture and social learning. Cognitive Science,24(3), 477-508.
Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., … & Boesch, C. (1999).
Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399(6737), 682-685.
Some helpful websites:
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_culture#Primate_culture
Susan Perry’s CAPUCHIN TRADITIONS PROJECT:
http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/sperry/ctp.html
The first part of your paper should define the term culture or traditions as they are used by
primatologists. With these definitions, explain existing data and theories addressing questions like:



What evidence has been provided for non-human primate culture or traditions?
How do these cultures and traditions develop and spread?
How are cultures and traditions maintained?
DO NOT provide your opinion in the first part of the paper – just summarize the concepts and evidence
impartially.
The second part of your paper should address whether you are convinced by claims of culture
development in non-human primates, whether you think non-human primate culture is a well-observed
in nature (or perhaps only in captivity), and whether you find the theories of how culture and traditions
develop to be logically sound and supported by evidence. This is the place where you can provide your
opinion. In your mind, does culture and learned tradition require some special abilities or social
structures that only few primates have, or should we expect to find evidence of culture among most
primates? Remember, regardless of your position, you need to show that you have a good
understanding of the concepts and the phenomena considered to be evidence before you express your
opinion concerning them.
Writing Assignment/ Lab #2 GRADING RUBRIC [10% towards your total grade]
Requirements:
[1 points] Essay content in your own words: 500 word minimum – NOT including headings, titles,
identifying information or any quoted material or references. (hint: it is usually the case that papers
turned in with just the minimum amount of words tend to have many inadequacies; the minimum word
count should serve as a benchmark for comparison, not as a goal to be closely met)
Paper Part 1: A first part of your paper is identifiable, meaning it can be identified without much work by
the reader (use heading, number, or clear formatting to distinguish it from part 2) [0.5 points], free
from “I” statements or opinion [0.5 points], and provides a definition of “culture” and/or “learned
tradition” [0.5 points] that explains existing data and theories addressing questions like:



What evidence has been provided for non-human primate culture or traditions? To earn
points for this you need to review details found in original peer-reviewed articles
reporting the information first hand. [2 points]
How do these cultures and traditions develop and spread? [0.5 points]
How are cultures and traditions maintained? [0.5 points]
Paper Part 2: A second part of your paper is identifiable [0.5 points], provides an evaluation and your
opinion about



Explanation of why you are or are not convinced by claims of culture development in nonhuman primates [0.5 points],
Whether you think non-human primate culture is a well-observed in nature (or perhaps only in
captivity) and why you think this [0.5 points],
Whether you find the theories of how culture and traditions develop to be logically sound and
supported by evidence. (Important: Be clear in explaining exactly how the evidence you
reviewed in part 1 does or does not support the theories you discuss – if you have not reviewed
the details of evidence that was provided by original sources, you cannot form an evaluation) [1
points],
You should provide some additional discussion and conclusion (that you have freedom to choose), e.g.
In your mind, does culture and learned tradition require some special abilities or social structures that
only few primates have, or should we expect to find evidence of culture among most primates(?). [1
points].
Cite the primary source for information that is not commonly known. With a few exceptions, primary
sources should be authors of publications in peer-reviewed journals. Direct quotations are discouraged –
put things in your own words. In-text parenthetical citations (e.g., Darwin, 1859) and American
Psychological Association (APA) style references required for all citations (whether internet pages,
journal articles, books, edited volumes, or other media) should be provided in a labeled Reference
section [1 points]. You are expected to read beyond the textbook and lectures while conducting
literature research for this project. The easiest way to engage in material beyond the textbook is to
access the recommended readings provided in the assignment description. A very informative outside
source (e.g. a scientific book dedicated to speciation) might be sufficient for this lab but for many of you
it will be necessary to cite and reference multiple sources. There is no specific requirement for how
many or how few sources are needed to complete this assignment beyond at least 1.
Summary of 10 possible points:
Requirement
word count
part 1 identifiable
part 1 No “I” or opinion
definition of both “culture” and
“learned tradition”
evidence for non-human
primate culture or traditions
How cultures and traditions
develop and spread
How cultures and traditions
maintained
part 2 identifiable
Explanation of why you are/ are
not convinced by claims of
culture development in nonhuman primates
Whether you think non-human
primate culture is a wellobserved
Whether you find the theories
of how culture and traditions
develop to be logically sound
and supported by evidence.
(Explain how evidence does or
does not support theories)
extended discussion &
conclusion
in-text parenthetical citation
and APA reference section
TOTAL
Possible
1.00
0.5
0.5
0.5
2.00
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.00
1.00
1.00
10.00
Earned

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