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1. Personality Measures – Validity and Reliability You textbook describes different types of personality measures, such as subjective, objective, and projective. Examples of subjective measures are observations, interviews, and situational tests. Examples of objective measures are questionnaires, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator, and various questionnaires that measure the “big five” personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Examples of projective measures are the Rorschach inkblot test and the thematic apperception test. Each type of measure has strengths and limitations. Personality measures vary widely in how valid and reliable they are. In objective measures, we see those that range from highly invalid and reliable, such as a quiz in a fashion magazine, to measures that show high reliability and validity, such as the MMPI-2. In your text in the Unit 6 studies, you read definitions of “reliability” and “validity.” For this discussion, describe your understanding of the two terms in your own words. Describe why it is important to consider reliability and validity when using a personality measure for practices such as counseling and job placement. 2[u06d2] Unit 6 Discussion 2 2. Personality – Measuring Traits Various personality measures are intended to measure different aspects of our personalities, as no test measures all aspects. For example, the “big five” measures the traits of openness, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The MMPI-2 measures adult psychopathology. For this discussion, take an online personality measure of your choice, and review the results (you are not required to reveal the results in your post). Answer the following: How well did the measure describe the traits in you that it was intended to measure? What reliability and validity information did you find for your measure? If you cannot find reliability and validity information for the measure, what might that mean about the measure? Describe some of the strengths and limitations of using personality measures for various purposes, such as marriage counseling, team building, and matching people with jobs. 3. Applied Psychology Research – Human Factors Research in psychology sometimes tests the use of products to improve the well-being of people. For example, in the online article you read in your studies for this unit, “Undoing Dyslexia via Video Games,” the authors describe how the Fast ForWord program is used to help children with dyslexia to distinguish between sounds. For this discussion: Find an example of how applied psychology has been used to develop or improve a product in the interest of human well-being. Note: if you are working with the topic of product development for your Unit 9 assignment on applied research in psychology, the product must be different from the one you select for this discussion. Describe the product, and explain how it is used to promote well-being. What does research tell us about the effectiveness of the product? Provide the reference for the source that studied the product. Use APA (6th edition) style and formatting for citing references. [u07d2] Unit 7 Discussion 2 4. Applied Psychology Research – Ecology Applied research in psychology is conducted, among many other uses, to discover ways to encourage people to use environmentally friendly behavior. Earlier in this unit, you read the article “Shaping Pro-Environment Behaviors.” Search the Capella University Library and the Internet for additional ways that applied research in psychology is used to promote pro-environment behavior. You might also be interested in exploring Thefuntheory.com, a Web site from Volkswagen, for ideas for this discussion. For this discussion, complete the following: Discuss the concept of the “tragedy of the commons.” How does the lack of awareness of the problems created by overconsumption of resources contribute to the tragedy of the commons? Present some ways that applied research in psychology is being used to raise awareness and promote ecologically sound behavior. Describe an idea of your own for ways to promote ecologically constructive behavior or for applying the ideas from the research you explored. 5. Social Behavior and Influence After reading Milgram’s article; viewing the slideshow on the Stanford prison experiment; and reading about social influence, compliance, and conformity in the Coon and Mitterer textbook earlier in this unit, address the following: What did the Milgram studies reveal about people’s tendencies to go against their own values in following authority? In your thinking, what are the similarities and differences in meaning between the words “respect” and “obedience”? Discuss a time when you were made uncomfortable by the request of an authority figure. How did you feel and react? How can we help children and those we mentor make distinctions between respectfully complying with authority and blindly following abuses of authority?

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