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Philosophy 231-301: The Big Questions
Prof. Trogan
Fall 2017
First Exam
Directions: Answer each of the questions below using the ANSWER SHEET
provided (page 5). Only your ANSWER SHEET will be collected next class.
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
According to Buddhism, craving and pleasure are
unrelated.
unrelated to sensations.
related since we crave those sensations that give us pleasure.
related but not closely since we can crave what is not pleasant.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following is part of the Four Noble Truths?
Life is suffering.
Ignorance is good.
Suffering cannot be overcome.
Asceticism is the cure for suffering.
3.
a.
The Fourth Noble Truth is also called the Middle Path because
it avoids the extremes of living a life pursuing pleasure and living a life
of asceticism and self-denial.
pleasure is evil.
it teaches life is suffering.
God wants us to live moderately.
b.
c.
d.
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
5.
Right Action consists of
abstaining from harsh, rude, and impolite language.
promoting moral, honorable, and peaceful conduct.
abstaining from making your living through professions that bring
harm to others.
resolving to prevent evil and unwholesome states of mind from
arising.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The Buddha would most likely answer the question “How should one
live?” by saying,
“seek wisdom, be moral, practice mental discipline.”
“since suffering cannot be escaped do whatever you want.”
“follow your dreams.”
“life is suffering.”
6.
a.
b.
c.
A teleologist such as Aristotle thinks that
some things, but not all things, have an end.
some things, but not all things, have a purpose.
nothing has a purpose.
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d.
7.
d.
all things have a purpose and their purpose constitutes their good.
According to Aristotle, the chief or supreme good must be something
desired for its own sake because
it is extrinsically or instrumentally valuable.
people want to be happy in order to gain fame and fortune.
if it were not, our search for the good life would be in vain since there
would be no end to it.
one can never be too rich.
8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
According to Aristotle, the final good for which humans need to aim is
an activity of the soul in accord with excellence.
a means to something that will make us happy.
courage.
wealth.
9.
Aristotle’s analysis of the human good (eudaimonia) is dependent
upon the idea that
the primary human function is nutrition and growth.
the primary human function is perception and sensation.
humans are rational animals.
happiness is primarily a psychological state of feeling good.
a.
b.
c.
a.
b.
c.
d.
10.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Aristotle writes, “It makes no small difference, then, whether we form
habits of one kind or of another from our very youth; it makes a very
great difference, or rather all the difference… .” By this he means
becoming virtuous has nothing to do with practice.
virtues are acquired by practice.
habits are always good.
there is no difference between intellectual and moral virtues.
11.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following is a vice of excess?
empty vanity
mock modesty
undue humility
insensibility
12.
Aristotle’s argument that concludes “virtue is a state of character”
relies on which premise?
Virtue is a faculty.
Virtue is neither a passion nor a faculty.
Virtue is a passion, but not a faculty.
Virtue is a state of character.
a.
b.
c.
d.
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13.
a.
b.
c.
d.
The mean between undue humility and empty vanity is
courage.
proper pride.
being good-tempered.
truthfulness.
14.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following positions characterizes ethical absolutism?
There is no way of knowing what is right or wrong.
Your moral views are as good as anyone else’s.
Moral truths are objective, transcending time and place.
There are no transcultural moral values.
15.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which of the following positions characterizes ethical relativism?
Moral standards are absolute.
Your moral views are as good as my moral views; no morals are
universally valid.
Moral values are not relative to social groups.
If it is wrong to lie, then it is wrong in any and all circumstances.
16.
a.
b.
c.
d.
A deontologist would argue that
we should do good because it is our duty.
what makes an action right or wrong are the consequences that result.
there are no objective standards of morality.
morality is without a rational foundation.
17.
a.
b.
c.
d.
According to Kant, the only thing good without qualification is
an act itself, such as giving money to the needy.
a good will.
the consequence of an act.
an act that is legal.
18.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Kant claims that a good will is manifested when a person does good
from duty, not inclination. Why does he claim this?
Inclination is a feeling, and feelings cannot be morally commanded.
We must be inclined to do what is good.
Morality is a matter of feeling, not of will.
What we will is based on how we feel.
19.
a.
b.
c.
d.
An imperative is categorical if it is
conditional.
hypothetical.
unconditional.
not freely accepted.
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20.
Kant’s categorical imperative states
a.
you are under an obligation to obey the laws of the state even if they
are morally wrong.
b.
if you cannot universalize the maxim of your action, you should not do
it.
c.
if you cannot universalize the maxim of your action, you should do it.
d.
act so as to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of
people.
21.
According to Kant, we cannot
a.
will to lie.
b.
will to cheat.
c.
will a universal law of lying.
d.
will to help others.
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Philosophy 231-301: The Big Questions
Prof. Trogan
Fall 2017
First Exam Answer Sheet (DUE IN CLASS OCTOBER 14, 2017)
LAST NAME
___________________________________________________________
FIRST NAME
__________________________________________________________
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