1) Why are natural sciences also referred to as “pure” sciences?a)They are considered standalone bodies of unique knowledge.b)They are the only sciences to which the scientific method can be applied.c)They are the original sciences upon which all others are based.d)They are not affected by subjectivity in the way other sciences are.2)Which of the following does not represent an example of the applied sciences as they are used in health care today?a)Social workb)Psychotherapyc)Examination of care disparitiesd)Pathology3)Roberta firmly believes that individual experiences are the source of all knowledge in the world. As a scientist, she acknowledges her role as a participant in the experiments she performs and does consider herself merely a disconnected observer of phenomenon. Roberta’s views are most closely reflective of which school of scientific thought?a)Natural scienceb)Human sciencec)Applied sciencec)Soft science4)What is the ultimate goal of the scientific method?a)Application of scientific results to a related body of knowledge in order to meet some type of human need.b) Examination of the decisions made by scientist to understand the ways in which subjectivity was introduced to the experiment.c) Reproducible experimental results that do not take researcher individuality into account.d) Improving the situation or process used in the experiment to yield more accurate results in repeat experiments.5) Which of the following best describes the aim of natural sciences?a) Affirmation of the importance of cultural understanding by uncovering the common subjective biases of different disciplines.b) Improvement of the quality of life by understanding what helps people maximize their functional abilities.c) Utilization of knowledge by applying it to a specific purpose in order to better a situation or change viewpoints.d) Development of knowledge for the sake of developing knowledge, discovering truth, and controlling outcomes.6) Which of the following statements most accurately encapsulates Thomas Kuhn’s proposed philosophy of science?a) Science philosophy should address both the conceptual and empirical problems of science and serve as merely a problem-solving activity.b) Science philosophy should focus on concept . clarification and concept analysis based on theory development and synthesis.c) Science philosophy should resolve conceptual problems in science without being limited to the development of theories.d) Science philosophy should examine the process of science, rather than the product of science, according to a disciplinary matrix known as a paradigm.7) Which of the following philosophies is not part of the larger philosophical tradition known as postmodernism?a) Historicismb) Hermeneuticsc) Critical social theoryd) Feminism8) Which of the following best describes the theoretical basis behind the postmodern understanding of knowledge?a) Knowledge is a series of classical “truths” that are colored by gender biases, and it gives rise to the theory of masculine superiority.b) Knowledge and the knower are inseparable, and class and gender have significant influence on what is considered knowledge.c) Knowledge is developed through observation of the natural world, and can be best applied to hard science.d) B and C9) A nurse who adopts a pluralistic view of nursing science would most likely do which of the following?a) Follow the espoused values and overall worldview of the nursing discipline even it conflicted with his or her personal beliefs.b) Utilize a problem-solving approach based on Laudan’s philosophy while applying the latest disciplinary trends to his or her practice.c) Rely on research-proven nursing diagnoses and taxonomies and focus on universal, rather than individual, trends observed in his or her patients.d) Draw upon a variety of perspectives from the many eras of nursing development to guide his or her personal practice.10) The consensus statement crafted at the Knowledge Consensus Conference in Boston in 1998 addressed all of the following areas except:a) The nature of the human personb) The role of nursing theoryc) The nature of the nurse as an individuald) The links of each area of understanding to nursing practice
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