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A Research paper on the influence of the United Nations on the Behavior of its Member State. I have attached two documents for additional reference. The Research PaperThe final research paper should build on the information in your research proposal and should incorporate your week 5 literature review. It should also include revisions based on the feedback you have received on those assignments.Here’s the format of the paper:Title Page of the Paper. The title of your paper should be brief but should adequately inform the reader of your general topic and the specific focus of your research. Keywords relating to parameters, population, and other specifics are useful. ALWAYS use a title page and insert page numbers for graduate work! Your title page will include the title, name, course name and number, and professor’s name.Please label each of the following sections in your research paper:Introduction (1-2 pages): This section provides an overview of the topic that you are writing about. It situates your topic in a broader context. In addition, the introduction should clearly state your research question and hypothesis.Literature Review (3-5 pages): This section should incorporate your week 5 literature review and any revisions based on feedback received.Data and Methodology (1-2 pages): This section should incorporate any feedback received on your week 2 research proposal. This section provides the reader with a description of your strategy to conduct research for this paper. It identifies your dependent and independent variables and how you operationalized them. It describes the data you used (whether quantitative or qualitative) and the method you used to analyze it to arrive at your findings. This section also describes any limitations you discovered about your strategy and how you overcame them.Analysis and Findings (4-5 pages): The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study based upon the methodology you applied to gather information. The results section should simply state the findings of the research arranged in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation. When formulating the results section, it’s important to remember that the results of a study do not prove anything.Findings can only confirm or reject the hypothesis underpinning your study. Make sure that you make connections back to your hypothesis and the extent to which it was supported or not. Remember, we can also learn something from a hypothesis that was not supported by the data.Conclusions (1-2 pages): This section will contain the concluding analytical arguments based on what research has revealed to answer the research question. Like any conclusion, it should provide a synopsis of the project, the strategy, and the results and what they add to the body of knowledge. This section should also offer suggestions for avenues of future research for other scholars, as all knowledge is evolutionary. References (or Bibliography): This section will contain all references, cited in Turabian format, properly indented, and alphabetically arranged. You should compile these and add to them as you’ve gone along. They should be error free!
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Running head: INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Influence of the United Nations on the Behavior of its Member
American Military University
October 7, 2017
John Peirce
1
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
2
Literature Review
Introduction
This paper reviews the available literature on the reference of following structures: Security
Council of member states, General Assembly, International Law, and Security Council among
others. The researcher will also review the proposed intervention measures of security embargoes
as pointed out in various sources. Thus this information will be acquired from a number of sources
constituting several citations. Proofread for wordiness.
Membership and Structure
In the Journal of Business Ethics, 1-14 “The Global Compact of United Nations: Engaging
Explicit and Implicit CSR for the Global Governance.”, by Brown, Clark, & Buono, (2017)
reiterate that all members of United Nations are allowed to use only six official languages of those
founding states; namely: English, Russian, Chinese, French, Arabic (Sec. 528 (1982) and Spanish
(UN Charter, Sec. 111) as a way of influencing members’ behaviors. Also, all official documents
and formal meetings are conducted online as well as in print and interpreted in all six languages
of founding nations. The UN membership is open to all nations that accept the requirements found
in the UN Charter and in the verdict of the organization that a new member is capable and willing
to accomplish such obligations. The General Assembly of United Nations decides on admission
upon advice from the Security Council after they have known the behavior of new member based
on the goodwill of global security (Brown, Clark, & Buono, (2017). Why is this important?
Security Council
González & Brown (2017) affirms that the Security Council of the United Nations is the
power structure of the organization. The council is in charge of maintaining security and peace
among member states. On the other end, other organs of the United Nations present their
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
3
recommendations to member administrations. González & Brown (2017), as well, affirms that
the Council had been granted power of making decisions that member administrations must
respect through UN Charter; and additionally, all decisions made by the council are termed as
resolutions and must be respected by all. In addition, the review indicates that, from 1965, the
Council has original five permanent states normally referred to as big five, and these are the
United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, China, and Russia; plus other ten nonpermanent members. All non-permanent states serve only for two years, five chosen every year
through General Assembly, and are selected to attain equitable representation based on regions
and behavioral influence to the Security organ (González & Brown, 2017). Again, why is this
important? How have scholars analyzed this?
General Assembly
The General Assembly of United Nations is comprised of all member states and they
regularly meet on yearly sessions, commencing in September, as well as in exceptional sessions,
under an annual voted president who comes from among the member representatives of big five
regional states (Graham, (2017). In the review of “The funding rules of institutional design at
global organizations: Elucidating the alteration in financing the United Nations. International
Relations of European Journal”, 23(2), 360-395, by Graham, (2017) reiterate that the General
Assembly is the only UN organ under which all state members are represented; the general
assembly serves as a medium for state members to articulate official positions of their respective
states; they as well use this assembly as a forum to launch initiatives on global questions of
economic progress, peace as well as issues regarding human rights. According to Graham, (2017),
the General Assembly can as well make recommendations, initiate studies, codify and develop
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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international law, promote global economic, support human rights, cultural, social and educational
programs.
Secretariat
According to United Nations (2016), the Secretariat of United Nations is governed by the
secretary-general of UN-assisted by a workforce of global civil servants. The secretariat offers
studies, facilities training, and information needed by bodies of United Nations when carrying out
their meetings. It as well performs obligations as directed by the Security Council, the UN
Economic, Social Council, the General Assembly, along with other UN bodies. The Charter of UN
provides that a member of staff be selected by application of the “uppermost standards of
competence, integrity, and efficiency,” with due respect for the significance of employing on a
broad geographical source, thus by doing such, will be upholding members influence on the global
peace (United Nations, 2016).
The secretary-general has a term of office of five years and is voted by the General
Assembly after the suggestion of the Council of the Security in a closed session. Straw votes of
applicants for secretary-general typically herald the formal recommendation of the council. Most
frequently, a secretary-general might be re-elected into the office for a second term. The present
Secretary-General is Guterres António who replaced Ki-moon in early 2017.
The duties of secretary-general comprise of assisting in resolving global disputes,
organizing intercontinental conferences, overseeing operations of peacekeeping, supervising the
implementation of decisions made by the Security Council as well as consulting with governments
of member states concerning a range of initiatives. Additionally, major offices of Secretariat
include that of the Coordinator for Affairs of Humanitarian Office, the section of international
relation Operations as well as the Political Affairs Department.
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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According to the United Nations (2016), there are a number of individuals who have served
as Secretary-General and influenced behavior and coordination among member states. One of them
is Trygve Lie from Norway who served from February 1946 to November 1952. Dag
Hammarskjöld from Sweden served from April 1953 to 1961 September. U Thant from Myanmar
served from November 1961 to 1971 December while Kurt Waldheim from Austria served from
January 1972 to 1981 December. Another person who held that office was Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
from Peru who served from 1982 January to 1991 December. Boutros Boutros-Ghali from Egypt
served from 1992 January to 1996 December while Kofi Annan from Ghana served from 1997
January to 2006 December. Ban Ki-moon from South Korea served from 2007 January to 2016
December. The current officeholder is António Guterres from Portugal who took the office as from
January 2017; all mentioned above have been instrumental in the behavioral influence of UN
membership (United Nations, 2016).
Financing
The system of UN receives its finance from two major sources that include the voluntary
member states contributions and from assessed. The normal two-year budgets of the United
Nations and its specific agencies are financed by assessments. From the “Qualitative
Organizational Research” by Elsbach and Kramer, (2016), the Assembly endorses the normal
budget and decides on the assessment for every member states. This is largely based on the
comparative ability of every state to pay, as deliberated by statistics its national income among
other factors.
The assembly has set up the principle which the UN would not be dependent on one
member in financing its operations. Hence, there is the upper limit of setting the maximum amount
of money any member states is assessed for the normal budget. In December 2000, the UN
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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assembly established roots to revise the scale of evaluation to make them healthier reveal present
universal circumstances (Elsbach, & Kramer, 2016).
As a section of the entire agreement, the ordinary budget upper limit was decreased from
24 to 21 percent; this represents the rate at which America is assessed (Elsbach, & Kramer, 2016).
America is the only nation which meets such ceiling; while assessment rates of other members are
lower. Under 2000 adopted scale of assessments, other main contributors to the normal budget for
2001 are Germany (9.82 percent), Japan (19.63 percent), and Spain (2.53 percent). France stands
at 6.50 percent, Italy at 5.09 percent, Britain at 5.57 percent, while Canada is at 2.57 percent.
International Law
The Court of International Justice (ICJ) is among the six principal structures that are
outlined in the Charter of the United Nations that regulates the behavior of UN body. The statute
of ICJ is annexed to the Charter of UN, forms a fundamental element of the Charter (Graham,
2017). In the review of “The funding rules of institutional design at global organizations:
Elucidating the alteration in financing the United Nations. International Relations of European
Journal”, 23(2), Graham affirms that all Member States of UN are parties of ipso facto to the
Court of International Justice statute. The Act is absolutely concerned with the Court: organization,
operations, competence, advisory opinions, procedure, and amendment. Therefore, the
considerable achievements of United Nations in the formation, development as well as codification
of global rule of law have come chiefly from directions than the lawful decisions of the ICJ.
Similarly, Graham, (2017), explains that as from1945, the United Nations has worked out
the leading responsibility in the codification and development of a body of global law which has
to turn out to be the foundation of law appropriate to relations among member states. Additionally,
these laws have influenced positively behaviors of all members’ state for the goodwill of
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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international security. The United Nations achieved this by the introduction of over 600 joint
agreements that address common distress and are legally necessary for the states that approved
them.
Proposed Intervention Measures of Security
Due to the diversity of global security concerns, the secretariat of the UN recommended a number
of security changes through its Security Council. They included ensuring clarity of scope,
demands, and coverage in UN arms restriction resolutions (Elsbach & Kramer, 2016). In addition
to the above other recommendations included carrying out regular reviews to measure compliance
with UN arms impediment demands, raising the expertise and authority of UN committees of
panels of experts, sanctioning and monitoring teams (González & Brown, 2017).
Finally, as a tool of influence on the membership behavior, there should an elaborate
establishment of a ‘clearing house’ for UN committees of sanctions, monitoring teams and panels
of experts to strengthen and assess the ability of member nations in implementing arms embargoes.
Main functions revolved around targeting non-governmental and governmental actors that help in
the defiance of a UN arms embargo, and lastly promoting the implementation legislation national
criminalizing UN arms impediment violations.
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
8
References
Brown, J. A., Clark, C., & Buono, A. F. (2017). The United Nations Global Compact: Engaging
Implicit and Explicit CSR for Global Governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-14.
Elsbach, K. D., & Kramer, R. M. (2016). Handbook of qualitative organizational research:
Innovative pathways and methods. London; New York, NY: Routledge.
González, R., & Brown, R. (2017). The influence of direct and extended contact on the
development of acculturation preferences among majority members. Intergroup contact
theory: Recent developments and future directions. Series “Current Issues in Social
Psychology, 31-52.
Graham, E. R. (2017). The institutional design of funding rules at international organizations:
Explaining the transformation in financing the United Nations. European Journal of
International Relations, 23(2), 365-390.
United Nations. (2016). United Nations treaty. Place of publication not identified: United Nations
Pubns.
Hi John:
It’s hard for me to comment on this because it is not really a lit review, but is a descriptive
research paper. Remember for a lit review you need to characterize and categorize the
literature. You also need to use lit that is analytical—what you have here is a description
of various parts of the UN. You did a good job in your oral presentation. I know it can
difficult to record yourself (do I REALLY sound like that ☺). Here are some additional
comments in the rubric.
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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Criteria
Sources and Source Quality
Grade and Comments
9
(10 points)
Source quality is fine, but you did not use quotes
that contribute enough to a lit review.
7
Inquiry Question
(10 points)
Since this was highly descriptive, there was really
no guiding research question.
Organization
14
(15 points)
Connection to Defined Problem Area
Very well organized.
7
(10 points)
There is really no topic here since the paper is a
description of the UN
Incorporation of Theoretical Framework (15 points) 10
You really do not use a theoretical framework
Synthesis/Summary
9
(10 points)
The summary is the only part where you do any
synthesis.
Style
27
(30 points)
Make sure that you always think about how to
integrate material in a lit review and try to avoid
talking about one source at a time.
Grade = 83
INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
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Running head: INFLUENCE OF THE UN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS
A Research Proposal on the influence of the United Nations on the Behavior of its Member
States
John Peirce
American Military University
International Organizations
Professor Andrew Miller
1
THE INFLUENCE OF THE UN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS
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The influence of the United Nations on the behavior of its member states
The United Nations, popularly known as the UN, is an international organization
between governments all around the world. This is the largest and most powerful
intergovernmental organization. It was established in the mid-20th century to restore peace,
cohesion, and order across the world that lacked at the moment as a result of the many wars
that occurred during the early decades of the century and the preceding centuries (United
Nations, 2015). Almost every country is a member of the UN, although there are disparities in
the representation as well as the influence that different nations have within the body. As
such, the organization has attracted mixed reception and reviews, and with some arguing that
it has revolutionized the world and restored order to a great extent. While another segment
argues that the organization is a source of corruption, and is infested with bias and
ineffectiveness in its operations meant to benefit a few states (Fetherston, 1994; Hunnicutt,
2007; Knight, P. W. A., & Whitman, 2000). Through an analysis of various issues
surrounding the running of an organization, this paper develops a proposal aimed at
evaluating the influence that the organization has on the behavior of states and its relationship
to the states’ power domination within the organization.
Dependent variable identification
The dependent variable is the area of concern in the study. In this case, it surrounds the
influence of the UN on member states. While studying this variable, this paper will test for
issues such as the adherence to UN guidelines, consultation of the UN before implementation
of policies that could affect other nations, following UN directives, responding to UN calls,
and reliability on the UN for assistance. These factors define the influence that the UN has of
its member states, and the study will thus be guided by the question; “what is the influence
that the UN has in its member states?” “influence” is difficult to measure
THE INFLUENCE OF THE UN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS
3
Independent variable identification
The independent variable in this research will be based on something that is widely
known regarding the organization, and that will be used as the basis for understanding the
dependent variable based on its influence. One thing that is evident is that different nations
have different levels of power over and within the organization. The UN has some organs
such as the Security Council, the General Assembly, and the Economic and Social Council,
among others, and that are led by individuals selected from various states (United Nations,
n.d). At the same time, the organization has multiple agencies such as the World Bank, World
Trade Organization, and the World Health Organization, among others and that, similar to the
organization’s organs, are led by individuals from the member states. The UN Security
Council, for example, has only five permanent members, ten non-permanent members, and
other fringe members (United Nations, n.d). As such, it means that different nations have
different levels of control and domination. I am not sure what you are using for your
independent variable or how you will measure it.
Hypothesis formulation
The variables and the underlying factors have already been identified. In this case, the
study will thus not just seek the influence of the UN on its member states but will base this
factor on the power of a country or its domination of the UN. However, to create further
improve the research focus, the study will base its assumption on the idea that the influence
that the UN has on a member state lowers with the power that the nation has or its domination
in the UN leadership. This way, it will be possible to tweak the study and focus on proving if
indeed this assumption is valid. If it is valid and shows a consistent pattern, the hypothesis
will be confirmed.
Research method
THE INFLUENCE OF THE UN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS
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This study will be based on qualitative research. This design has been chosen since,
unlike quantitative research, qualitative research design will enable the researcher to explore
wider into existing literature and identify rich information to base the outcome of the study
and not just basing the data on basic facts and figures (Elsbach & Kramer, 2016). Moreover, it
would be difficult to quantify the influence that UN has on various nations based on the
factors identified previously. You may want to focus on a single case study.
The researcher will search for past literature and news reports from renowned
international news media websites. The reason that international media websites, and
precisely the New York Times, CNN, Al Jazeera, and the Guardian, is that they report news
from all over the world, which means that they can supply with rich information pertaining
the interaction between the UN and various states. This way, it will thus be possible to collect
bulk information whose analysis should help generate results. The researcher will thus explore
these newspapers, scholarly articles, and other credible literature while searching for relevant
information through the use of keywords like “the United Nations,” “the UN,” “UN
Intervention,” and “UN Support,” among others. The researcher will then explore the
identified literature and articles while taking notes on various events. The last phase will
involve the compilation of this information alongside the power or domination level of a
country in the UN, which will be identified on the organization’s website and literature.
Conclusion
This research will study the influence that the UN has on the behavior of its member
states based on their and domination. Through a qualitative approach, it will be possible to
identify bulk information and which, upon critical analysis, will help in generating a
relationship between the two variables.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE UN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ITS MEMBERS
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