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10 research articles that support the literature review related to the research question.Students will submit a paper indicating*why they believe each of the articles contributes to their research hypothesis.* This should not be a repeating of the abstract, but a brief summary of the findings within the article which are germane to the current research question.2 mins agoATTACHMENTS


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Roosevelt University
Borderline Personality Disorder
Olimpia Zaczynska
Why do adults from non-borderline mothers have a Borderline personality disorder when they
are old?
I have chosen this topic because my best friend was just diagnosed with it. It’s evident
that mothers who have borderline personality disorder will pass on the disorder to their young
ones. Social environment also contributes a lot to the development of this disorder. This is
because of exposing the children to scenarios that cause borderline personality disorder.
Examples of these scenarios may be in form of physical abuse, sexual abuse or psychological
abuse. When a kid is exposed to these scenarios, he/she develops fear and a sense of injustice
which when it continues, he/she develops the borderline personality disorder. Other situations
that lead to BPD includes parental quarrels most of which are directed towards the child, early
divorce when the child is still young, lack of maternal affection, brutality, cruelty, separation or
neglect by the parents for many years. These will lead to the failure of self-soothing capacities to
be developed or formed in their mind when they are faced with difficulties in their life. As a
result, low self-esteem, depression and high rate of anxiety are formed which lowers their social
perception, makes them more chronic to stress and increase fear in their attachment styles. There
are also other incidences that are reported from this group of individuals. Among the incidences
is negative attributional style, insecure style of attachment interpersonal and cognitive
vulnerability, the self-critical attitude among others (Schennach, et. al 2011).
When these traumatized children grew into adults, they often retreat into isolation after
spending many years searching for rescuers. They would either turn to power where they would
inspire fear and loathing to others or they would turn to be in a helpless position where they will
be behaving in a servile manner because of lack of mutually respectful relationship. To curb this,
acceptance and warmth from the parents and the caregivers when the child is growing is the only
solution to lessen damages such as abuse, conflict and abuse that are present in the social
environment (Citrome, Jaffe & Levine, 2010).
Causes of Borderline personality disorder to adults whose parents gave them diligent
care. There are many cases that are reported in the United States for people who have a
Borderline personality disorder and yet they were well taken care of during their childhood.
Reports show that causes of this BPD when one is an adult are still social environment. People
encounter different things each day and as time goes by, the experiences that an individual gets
from some of these situations cause them to develop borderline personality disorder in their old
age. Some of these factors include:
Unstable relationships – an individual meet very many people in his/her life. They may at
times fall in love with some other people thinking that the first personality trait that these
strangers show will always be displayed throughout the relationship and believe that they
will feel whole. However, this sometimes fails to fail to be the reality and the person ends
up being disappointed after the person whom he/she fall in love with change abruptly or
he/she starts to change with time. When this happens a couple of time, an individual may
develop hatred, mood swing, rage, guilt, terror and anger as he/she may feel being
betrayed. This will lead to borderline personality disorder (Schennach, et. al 2011).
Loss of a loved one – everyone in this world has the person who is very close to him or
her and whom they love and adore. For instance, if an individual has a loving and caring
parent who will always side with them and help them out when they are faced with a
problem dies, maybe due to illness or through accident, that person will be faced with
difficult and thus developing anger, hate and rage which they might not be able to
manage for the rest of their lives. This will lead to borderline personality disorder
because anytime they are faced with a problem and they need assistance or advice on
what to do, they will feel enraged and agitated when they remember that one person who
used to help them in such times.
Disputes – tribal disputes among the members of a certain community also causes
borderline personality dispute. For instance, if a group African America causes trouble
that causes harm to an American who is white or a Hindu, that person might develop
borderline personality disorder out of that situation. We all know that America is a free
country and anyone who is an American citizen can live anywhere in the soil of the
United States. This will mean that, every time that American who was done harm by the
African American sees blacks, he/she will remember the harm that was done to him/her
and thus they will feel threatened, attacked, or abused, and then become enraged.
These clients may repetitively reenact scenarios in which they feel threatened, attacked, or
abused, and then become enraged. The characteristic self-destructive and stormy interpersonal
behaviors that follow are an attempt to cope with unbearable feelings of rage, shame, guilt, and
terror associated with the symbolic re-experiencing of the trauma (Schennach, et al 2011).
Balanza, V., Merino, T., Tatay, A., Lerma, J., Cepeda, S., Laguna, L., et al. (2008). Similar
subjective response and adherence rates for long-acting risperidone and conventional
depots. European Psychiatry, 23(Supplement 2), S155-S155.
Citrome, L., Jaffe, A., & Levine, J. (2010). Treatment of mental disorder with depot preparations
of fluphenazine, haloperidol, and risperidone among inpatients at state-operated
psychiatric facilities. Mental disorder Research, 119 (1 – 3),153 – 159.
Horan, W. P., Blanchard, J. J., Clark, L. A., & Green, M. F. (2008). Affective traits in
schizophrenia and schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(5), 856-874.
Schennach-Wolff, R., Seemüller, F., Obermeier, M., Messer, T., Laux, G., Pfeiffer, H., et al.
(2011). Response and remission of subjective well-being in patients suffering from
mental disorder spectrum disorders. European Psychiatry, 26(5), 284-292.
Vothknecht, S., Schoevers, R. A., & de Haan, L. (2011). Subjective well-being in mental
disorder as measured with the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale:
a review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(3), 182-192.
Ethics in Borderline Personality Disorder Research
Olimpia Zaczynska
Roosevelt University
Ethical Considerations in Borderline Personality Disorder Research
Research ethics refers to the proper rules of conduct that should guide researchers when
they engage in research activities. Ethical consideration is of vital importance in any psychology
research (De Genna and Feske, 2013). A researcher must ensure that they conduct their research
according to the agreed code of conduct. They must do the best they can to protect research subjects
from any negative consequences that may arise from participating in a study. This study seeks to
measure Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in white women between the ages of 20-25. Each
of the study participants has to be from a non-borderline mother. The issue of personality disorder
is a very sensitive one and research ethics will be taken very seriously in this study.
According to Howe (2013), Psychiatrists and clinics face serious ethical challenges when
providing treatment to patients suffering from BPD who are or have the potential of becoming
suicidal. BPD is a serious personality disorder that is characterized by instability in moods,
functioning, behavior, and self-image. A BPD patient is prone to severe depression, anger, and
anxiety. The extreme impact of BPD on the patient’s psychological well-being raises the stakes of
ethical consideration in the study. Howe (2013) explains that psychiatrists face five ethical and
clinical challenges when treating a patient with BPD. These challenges are whether to tell the
patient about the results of their diagnosis, what to tell them about their suicide risks, whether they
should always be available by phone when to involuntarily hospitalize a patient, and how to
respond after attempted suicide (Howe, 2013).
The five ethical problems that face psychiatrists when treating BPD patients will be key in
guiding ethical conduct in the study. Another serious challenge is how the researcher will proceed
when they diagnose a study subject with BPD. The challenge is whether to tell the subject that
they show signs of BPD and that they should seek medical help and what that would mean to the
subject. There is also the challenge of informing the diagnosed subject that they might have
suicidal tendencies. There is a lot of discrimination and stigmatization in the society of people
suffering from various personality disorders. Individuals with BPD are given mean labels in the
society (HeretoHelp, 2017). This is very risky as their susceptibility to depression, anger, and
anxiety coupled with stigmatization can make them hurt themselves. The study will take privacy
and confidentiality of a subject’s results very seriously. Extreme care will be taken in revealing
the study results to a subject.
Another ethical consideration is about the study’s sample population. These study
participants will be Caucasian/white women between the ages of 20-26. Each of the participants
has to be from a non-borderline mother. This is because BPD studies have shown that a mother
with BPD can transmit these traits to her offspring. A researcher has to act ethically in all steps of
a study. Sampling is not an exception to this. The choice of Caucasian/white female as subjects to
this study is not motivated by racism or prejudice. According to De Genna and Feske (2013), white
women with BPD reported extreme internalizing symptoms while African-American women
reported extreme externalizing symptoms. They further observed that white women with BPD
show these symptoms clearly compared to African-American women with BPD (De Genna and
Feske, 2013). The study chose white women as the study’s subject due to the ease of spotting BPD
To further ensure that the study is appropriate, the researcher will issue letters of informed
consent to all the study participants. This letter will clearly state the study’s title, purpose, benefits,
risks, and how the researcher plans to ensure the confidentiality and privacy of the subjects’ data.
The participants will be required to read the letter of informed consent and to freely choose whether
to participate in the study or not. If they choose to participate, they will sign the document and be
issued with a copy of the same. The participants will be free to discontinue their engagement with
the study when they wish to.
De Genna, N. M., & Feske, U. (2013). Phenomenology of borderline personality disorder: the
role of race and socioeconomic status. The Journal of nervous and mental
disease, 201(12), 1027.
HeretoHelp. (2017). Borderline Personality Disorder. [online] Available at:
Howe, E. (2013). Five ethical and clinical challenges psychiatrists may face when treating
patients with borderline personality disorder who are or may become
suicidal. Innovations in clinical neuroscience, 10(1), 14.

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