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1- Write an essay about Identify cultural biases of your culture.- Typed, double spaced – 4 pages in length2- I need summary for chapter 7 I have attached the pages that I need you to summarize them. It must be at least 2 pages, double spaced and typed.3- For this assignment you write an essay I have attached the pages that I need you to do please make sure you follow everything because its 25% from my final grade. 4- I need you to pick up three news from anywhere and copy them and tell me where did you get them from (journal entry).please if there is anything is not clear let me know.
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Chapter 7 Dominant U.S. Cultural Patterns Using Value Orientation
Theory
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
Identify the five aspects of value orientation theory.
Trace the origins of U.S. cultural patterns.
Use value orientation theory to describe dominant U.S. cultural patterns.
Use each aspect of value orientation theory to describe communication practices in the United States.
Discuss whether U.S. cultural patterns vary by region.
© iStockphoto.com/HultonArchive
Chapter Outline
Origins of U.S. Cultural Patterns
Pre-16th-Century Indigenous Americans
European Enlightenment
Regional Differences Resulting From Immigration
Forces Toward the Development of a Dominant Culture
Value Orientation Theory
What Is a Human Being’s Relation to Nature?
The Individual-and-Nature Relationship
Science and Technology
Materialism
What Is the Modality of Human Activity?
Activity and Work
Efficiency and Practicality
Progress and Change
What Is the Temporal Focus of Human Life?
What Is the Character of Innate Human Nature?
Goodness
Rationality
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Mutability
What Is the Relationship of the Individual to Others?
Individualism
Self-Motivation
Social Organization
Forces Toward the Development of Regional Cultures
The New Regions
➤ Summary
➤ Discussion Questions
➤ Key Terms
➤ Readings
Because culture is widely shared and taken for granted, we have little experience in discussing how cultural values affect our
behavior. Of course, not everyone in a culture acts in accordance with the culture’s values all the time. Nonetheless, dominant
cultural values or patterns of behavior can be identified that make it possible to compare cultures in a meaningful way. This
chapter focuses on the United States—the third largest nation in the world by size and the third most populous. Its economy is
the largest and most technologically powerful in the world. Since World War II, the United States has remained the world’s
most powerful nation-state.
A 2011 poll showed that since the events of September 11, 2001, more than two thirds of U.S. residents saw the past decade as
a period of decline for the United States (Penn, 2011). Some 41% felt that the most important event of the past decade was 9/11
(Barack Obama’s election and the economic recession trailed far behind at 9% and 7%, respectively). An overwhelming 68%
believed that the past decade had been one of decline for the country, and 47% felt that it was one of the worst decades in the
past 100 years. The pollsters saw these results as a fundamental change for a country long known for optimism amid adversity.
Some argue that the United States has declined; others see it differently. Some argue that other countries have now made
significant advances.
In this chapter, the origins of U.S. cultural patterns are presented, and the forces that tended to shape a national character from
several regional groups are described. Then, what have been labeled the dominant U.S. cultural patterns are described using
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s (1961) value orientation theory. Finally, the forces that are contributing to new regional groups are
described.
If you are of the U.S. culture, you have learned values, what is competent, and what is desirable behavior from that culture.
This type of learning is called emic knowledge, or knowledge of the culture learned from the inside. Emic knowledge
constitutes the rules known from inside the culture and as such are seldom organized or consciously discussed (Stewart, 1982).
It is not unusual, then, that you may find some of the descriptions in this chapter new concepts. If you are not of the U.S.
culture, the theoretical and normative information you have learned about the United States is called etic knowledge. This
chapter may help you understand some aspects of the culture that you have found puzzling.
Origins of U.S. Cultural Patterns
Pre-16th-Century Indigenous Americans
Before Columbus arrived, North America was home to a diverse population of some 10 million people. Indigenous Americans
spoke hundreds of languages. Arguably, though, the Iroquois were the most important indigenous group. Like many other
indigenous groups, their name came from their enemies. The Algonquin called them the Iroqu (Irinakhoiw), or “rattlesnakes.”
The French added the Gallic suffix -ois. The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee, meaning “people of the long house.”
The original homeland of the Iroquois was between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls, but at one time they
controlled most of what is now the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Surprisingly few in number, the Iroquois
had an impact on North American history. Their number in 1600 has been estimated at 20,000. European epidemics and
warfare reduced their population to about half that. Unlike other nations, the Iroquois assimilated conquered groups and grew
in number.
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Iroquois flag at the Lafayette (New York) High School
AP Photo/KEVIN RIVOLI
The Iroquois political system, the Iroquois League (sometimes known as the Five Nations and later the Six Nations), was
formed prior to any European contact and hence owed nothing to European influence. The league was founded to maintain
peace and resolve disputes between its members. It had a written constitution with a system of checks, balances, and supreme
law. Central authority was limited. By 1660, to deal with European powers as an equal, the Iroquois found it necessary to
present a united front to Europeans.
Some argue that the Iroquois political organization was an influence on the U.S. Articles of Confederation and Constitution.
Others strongly refute that. Nonetheless, in 1988 the U.S. Congress passed Senate Resolution 76 to recognize the influence of
the Iroquois League on the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
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Global Voices
For 500 years the West patented six killer applications that set it apart. The first to download them was Japan. Over the last century, one
Asian country after another has downloaded these killer apps—competition, modern science, the rule of law and private property rights,
modern medicine, the consumer society and the work ethic. Those six things are the secret sauce of Western civilization.
—Niall Ferguson, author of Civilization: The West and the Rest (2011; quoted in Zakaria, 2011, para. 5)
European Enlightenment
The U.S. society that evolved and is dominant today grew from European roots. The scientific method, democracy, and
capitalism are institutions of Western cultures (D’Souza, 2002). The dominant language, the system of representative
government, the structure of law, and the emphasis on individual liberty all derive from the Enlightenment ideals formulated in
England. Other important U.S. ideals, such as the separation of powers, derive from the French philosopher Montesquieu.
These values, established early in U.S. history, remain strong.
Regional Differences Resulting From Immigration
The United States is a country of immigrants from all over the world, each person immigrating with his or her own cultural
values. Many arrived in groups and tended to remain settled in the same area. Brandeis University historian David Hackett
Fischer (1989) argues that the early immigrants from England established distinctive regional cultures that remain today. He
further argues that the United States has been a society of diversity—not homogeneity—from its very beginning.
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Tocqueville’s Democracy in America is considered one of the most comprehensive and insightful books ever written about the
United States.
Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University
The Puritans came from eastern England to Massachusetts between 1629 and 1641. A small number of Royalist elite and large
numbers of indentured servants from southern and western England settled in the Chesapeake region between 1642 and 1675.
Quakers from England’s north midlands and Wales settled in the Delaware Valley between 1675 and 1725. The final group,
from Northern Ireland, Scotland, and the border area of northern England, settled in Appalachia between 1717 and 1775. Each
of these groups had diverse dialects and attitudes, and all retained a degree of separateness. Even Henry Adams’s History of the
United States had separate chapters on the “intellect” of New England, the Middle States, and the South in 1800. Zelinsky
(1973) examined regional patterns in language, religion, food habits, architecture, place names, and the culture of the
inhabitants who established the first effective settlements. He identified five regions: New England, the Midland, the Middle
West, the South, and the West. More recently, Bigelow (1980) examined ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, and dialect and
identified these regions: Northeast, Border South, Deep South, Midwest, Mexicano, Southwest, Colorado, Mormondom,
Pacific Northwest, Northern California, and Southern California. These analyses clearly show that the United States may never
have been a completely homogeneous culture. In 1831, then 26-year-old French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–1859)
toured the United States and saw the country as composed of almost separate little nations (Tocqueville, 1835/1945; see also
Mayer, 1981).
Map 7.1 The United States Circa 1800
Source: John Melish map (1822), from Geographicus Antique Maps
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1820s#mediaviewer/File:1823_Melish_Map_of_the_United_States_of_America__Geographicus_-_USA-melish-1822.jpg).
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Years later, communication researchers Peter Andersen, Myron Lustig, and Janis Andersen (1987) suggested that these
regional differences continued to exist in three areas of communication behavior:
Verbal control and dominance. New Englanders were more likely to be introverts; those in the Mid-Atlantic region were
characterized as not particularly talkative or verbally dominant.
Affiliativeness and immediacy. People from Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana visited more neighbors and rated
friends higher than did people in other regions. Pacific Coast residents reported the most isolation from friends, least
acquaintance with their neighbors, greatest distance from relatives, and lowest frequency of interactions with confidants.
Arousal or activation. New Englanders employed a nondramatic and reserved communication style. The South and the
Northwest were slow and relaxed compared to the fast pace of the urban Northeast.
Focus on Culture 7.1
The Frontier in U.S. Culture
In 1893, Frederick Jackson Turner published The Frontier in American History in which he argued that U.S. culture grew from and was nurtured
by the ever-present frontier. The frontier provided resources, wildness, a place to test and build character. Survival challenges on the frontier
produced a people of strong and durable character. The frontier symbolized economic opportunity, religious freedom, and relief from oppression.
The continued promise of “greener pastures” produced a forward-looking people.
Forces Toward the Development of a Dominant Culture
Tocqueville predicted that the United States would be a great power. The reasons he gave were the country’s large geographic
size, abundant natural resources, growing population, and vibrant national character. Historians have charted the series of
events that resulted in a dominant national culture:
Opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 and emergence of New York as the financial and corporate capital of an integrated
industrial complex stretching from the Northeast to the upper Midwest
Defeat of the South and the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments that established national
citizenship over state citizenship
Development of Theodore Roosevelt’s “new nationalism” that provided the intellectual foundations for an activist
national government
Passage of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924, which permitted a degree of homogenization of the population
Development of radio and television, which nationalized politics and popular culture
The automobile and interstate highway system that made the country internally mobile
The Great Depression, World War II, and the onset of the Cold War, all of which increased the need for a strong
centralized national government
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© iStockphoto.com/toddmedia
These forces contributed to an exceptional uniformity that characterized U.S. society in the early post–World War II period
(Clough, 1997). Another perspective is to recognize that the various groups constituting the United States have, to some extent,
diverse cultural patterns. They may overlap, but they do differ. To talk about a dominant cultural pattern from this perspective
is to talk about the cultural patterns of the group that controls the society.
International opinion polls continue to show that U.S. residents have values different from those of other cultures. It was
Tocqueville who coined the phrase “American exceptionalism” to express the idea that the United States is different.
Understanding these values and their development contributes to improved intercultural communication, for as you learn to
understand and accept your own culture, your intercultural communication improves. As you go through this chapter, then,
keep in mind that it is generalizing the values of an entire culture. You may find that you as an individual do not agree with all
the values identified as typical in the United States, and you surely will know of others who would not agree. This chapter is
about the dominant cultural values said to be characteristic of the majority of U.S. citizens.
As you examine these values, remember how everything that occurs in a culture is related to and consistent with other things in
that culture. None of the values presented is discrete—all are related to and reinforce each other.
Global Voices
During the summer of 2013, the world turned its attention to Syria and its chemical weapons. President Obama proposed U.S. airstrikes on the
country. Russian president Vladimir Putin directly addressed the concept of American “exceptionalism” in an op-ed piece in the New York Times:
“My working and personal relationship with President Obama is marked by growing trust. I appreciate this. I carefully studied his address to the
nation on Tuesday. And I would rather disagree with a case he made on American exceptionalism, stating that the United States’ policy is “what
makes America different. It’s what makes us exceptional.” It is extremely dangerous to encourage people to see themselves as exceptional,
whatever the motivation. There are big countries and small countries, rich and poor, those with long democratic traditions and those still finding
their way to democracy. Their policies differ, too. We are all different, but when we ask for the Lord’s blessings, we must not forget that God
created us equal.”
Source: Putin (2013, p. A31).
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Value Orientation Theory
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) argue that all human cultures are confronted with universally shared problems emerging
from relationships with fellow beings, time, activities, and nature. These five basic problems are as follows:
What is a human being’s relation to nature? (human being–nature orientation)
What is the modality of human activity? (activity orientation)
What is the temporal focus of human life? (time orientation)
What is the character of innate human nature? (human nature orientation)
What is the relationship of the individual to others? (relational orientation)
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s value orientation theory suggests that cultures develop unique positions in these five value
orientations: human being–nature, activity, time, human nature, and relational. Human being–nature is described here as
worldview (after Samovar, Porter, & Jain, 1981) and considers how humans dominate, live with, or are subjugated to nature.
Activity orientation deals with people in the culture “being” (passively accepting), “being-in-becoming” (transforming), or
“doing” (initiating action). Time orientation deals with the emphasis the culture places on the past, the present, or the future.
Human nature orientation considers whether humans are primarily evil, primarily good, or a mixture of both. And relational
orientation considers the way the culture organizes interpersonal relationships: linear hierarchy, group identification, or
individualism.
There have been many excellent descriptions of U.S. cultural patterns (e.g., Kohls, 1984; Samovar et al., 1981; Stewart, 1972).
The one used in this chapter is based on Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s (1961) value orientations and modifies and adds to their
categories as necessary to describe the cultural patterns that are characteristic of the majority of U.S. citizens and have an
influence on communication.
The Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck value orientations can be used to describe other cultures and, therefore, provide a systematic
way of comparing cultural values.
What Is a Human Being’s Relation to Nature?
The term worldview deals with a culture’s most fundamental beliefs about its place in the cosmos, beliefs about God, and
beliefs about the nature of humanity and nature. Worldview refers to the philosophical ideas of being. Huntington (1993, 1996)
has argued that the world can be divided into eight major cultural zones that have been shaped by religious tradition still
powerful today. The zones are Western Christianity; the Orthodox world; the Islamic world; and the Confucian, Japanese,
Hindu, African, and Latin American zones. Throughout the 19th century, religious discourse in the United States was
dominated by White male Protestant conservatives of European heritage (Eck, 1993). In the 20th century, the United States
became a meeting place for all the world’s religions, yet it can be said that the European conservative Protestant worldview
dominates U.S. culture.
Sociologist Seymour Martin Lipset (1990) argues that because the United States separates church and state, thus making
religion totally voluntary, people in the United States are more likely to believe that religion provides spiritual needs. In
countries with a state religion, that religion is in many ways a person’s only choice, whereas in the United States, the wide
diversity of religious options provides more opportunities for an individual to identify with a …
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